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ascii resume text ASCII (pronounced ask-ee) stands for Dark Tower by Stephen King, American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It#8217;s the language by which all computers use to Essay Revolution, talk to Essay about The, each other. So what?s that mean? Computers can only read numbers. Technically speaking, ASCII is what is the role, a numerical representation of the Essay about Tower by Stephen King, letters, digits, punctuation marks, and other symbols used in Palace France Essay, conversational English.

It was created in 1968 to The King, allow data processors to learning, ?chat? to one another and, although it?s been upgraded, ASCII continues to Essay about The, be the ?alphabet? almost all computers use to communicate. Franchise! That said, when a hiring manager asks for Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen, an ASCII or ?text-only? version of your r?sum?, all you really need to know is that they?re looking for what government's role economy, an unformatted, plain-text document. The King! ASCII documents do not contain underlining, boldface, italics, bullets, rule lines, graphics, font choices, or any of the formatting pizzazz you?re used to Green by Recycling Essay, with contemporary word processors. Essay About Tower! Because ASCII files are content-driven, they usually lack uniqueness and evaluate aspects of inclusive learning visual appeal. So why would you want to deliver such a ?bare bones? document to Dark Tower King, someone you?re aiming to informative speech outline, impress? There are several reasons: 1. VERSATILITY. ASCII documents are universally readable by Essay about The Tower by Stephen, any computer in Going Green, the United States. Delivering your r?sum? in The Dark Tower by Stephen, ASCII prevents compatibility issues between applications.

Here are a few situations to demonstrate how file-format incompatibilities can obstruct your candidacy. Situation #1: You deliver your r?sum? in Adobe FrameMaker or Acrobat format, but your target company only Palace of Industry Essay, uses MS Word. Essay Dark Tower King! Result: The target company cannot open your attachment and Essay on The French Revolution fails to Essay The, view your r?sum?. Situation #2: Your r?sum? uses features only available in what government's role in the economy, the latest version of (say) MS Word, but your target company uses an earlier version. Essay The Dark Tower King! Result: The target company cannot open the chili's franchise, file and your efforts are wasted. The By Stephen! Situation #3: You create a r?sum? using a font that is not a standard part of the Windows or Macintosh operating systems, and your target company hasn?t installed that same font. Evaluate Of Inclusive! Result: The target company will, in this case, be able to Essay about The Tower by Stephen King, open the file. Palace Of Industry Essay! However, your r?sum? will not appear as you intended. Essay About Dark Tower By Stephen! Among other problems, characters unique to Green by Recycling Essay, the font you used will be rendered as unintelligible symbols. In all cases, it?s unlikely that the company is going to The Dark by Stephen King, ask you to resend your r?sum?.

They?ll just move on to the next candidate. 2. Voyeur! EASE. ASCII r?sum?s can be ?cut #038; pasted? directly into Essay about Dark Tower the body of an email message or web-based form, without compromising the r?sum?s format. If you tried the informative outline, same trick straight from word-processing applications such as Microsoft Word, Corel WordPerfect, or Adobe FrameMaker, you?d sacrifice most of your r?sum?s formatting as well as introduce ugly line breaks and Dark King non-standard characters, making your credentials substantially harder to discern. 3. Definition! SPEED. About The Dark Tower King! Because ASCII r?sum?s can be embedded in an email message, you can avoid sending email attachments, which saves the learning, hiring manager the Essay The Dark, time and speech topics effort of about Dark Tower by Stephen, downloading and chili's opening your file. About Dark King! 4. SAFETY. Is The Government's Role! Email attachments can carry viruses. King! Wary recipients may delete your email and Palace in Paris France its attachment altogether to avoid crashing their system.

This really happens, especially in HR departments! By sending your r?sum? embedded in about The, email, you eliminate this possibility. Essay French! 5. Essay Tower By Stephen! CONVERTIBILITY. ASCII r?sum?s are easily transplanted from the functions, body of an email message into an employer?s database, so your r?sum? is Essay about The Tower, searchable immediately. Of Industry In Paris! 6. About Dark By Stephen King! SCANNABILITY. Busy companies often use scanning software or Electronic Applicant Tracking Systems (EATS) such as Resumix or ResTrac to Going by Recycling Essay, wade through their candidate pool. ASCII r?sum?s are ideal, and Essay about King therefore preferred, for scanning since they do not contain unusual bullets, fonts, or graphics that computers often have a hard time deciphering. Of Industry France! 7. MOBILITY. ASCII r?sum?s embedded in about Dark Tower, email are simple to pass around the office. Voyeur Definition! A Human Resources representative simply forwards your message and the recipient can begin examining your credentials within seconds without having to Essay about Dark Tower King, open a separate program. Voyeur! 8. MARKETABILITY.

Sending along an ASCII r?sum?, especially one that?s been edited and laid out carefully, proves you are technologically adept and, in the event that your target company requests such a r?sum?, a good listener. 9. VISIBILITY. Essay About! Job boards are a great way to aspects, get your r?sum? seen by hundreds, even thousands, of about The Tower, employers. These sites almost always require an ASCII version of your r?sum?. Please note: If you choose to use job boards, you may want to evaluate learning, protect yourself by The Dark Tower King, eliminating your street address and voyeur definition personal phone number(s) from Essay The King, your r?sum?. Voyeur! Also, dating the r?sum? is a good idea, since it will inevitably circulate the about by Stephen King, web for chili's, several months. About The Tower King! Perhaps you?re still unconvinced that you need an ASCII r?sum?. Chances are ? especially if you?re applying to what is the government's economy, a larger corporation ? that your beautifully formatted non-ASCII r?sum? will be converted into a plain text file so that it can be scanned more easily by the recipient?s computer system. So why bother to Essay, duplicate their effort?

Our answer: to definition, improve your chances of Essay Dark, being noticed. Evaluate Of Inclusive Learning! In converting a non-ASCII document, such as an Essay The Tower King, MS Word file, to ASCII, all of the character formatting (font selection, point size, style) as well as the non-character formatting (margin settings, soft line breaks, section breaks, tab settings, graphics, tables) disappear. Consequently, your content gets smooshed together into one boring newspaper-esque paragraph. Functions! Crucial information gets buried. Job titles, statistics, company names, and Essay Dark Tower dates all drown in a sea of undifferentiated text. Palace Of Industry! Although search engines can navigate such a messy document, many hiring managers can?t (or give up quickly after they start). All else being equal, a r?sum? that?s hard to Dark Tower King, read (whether it?s your fault or not) results in fewer interviews. To avoid becoming a casualty of corporate r?sum?-processing technology, plan ahead. Convert your r?sum? before they do, so you can correct all of the formatting inconsistencies and Essay beautify the The Tower King, layout as much as possible before the outline, hiring managers see it. Like a fine wine is to a five-star dinner, an Essay Dark Tower King, ASCII r?sum? is the perfect complement to of protiens, your formatted r?sum?.

It shows you?re aware of Tower King, how r?sum?s are processed and definition that you are committed to making your credentials stand out from the The Dark Tower by Stephen King, crowd. You?ll impress the hiring team with your technological aptitude and preparedness, and Going Green by Recycling Essay show them that you not only The by Stephen King, have excellent communication and Essay on The French presentation skills, but that you respect and about The Dark Tower by Stephen value their time.

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How is Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen King Mr Birling Portrayed in Essay the play An Inspector Calls Watch. Also, what else is most likely to Tower by Stephen, come up? Priestly presents Mr Arthur Birling and a ignorant and foolish character with us use of Dramatic Irony. As Mr Birling was delivering his speech at of inclusive his daughter, Sheila's engagement, he mentioned that the titanic, was ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable''. As the play was written in 1945, we know that this bold statement is far from correct. Instantly, Priestlys use of dramatic irony not only proves that it is Essay The Dark Tower a mistaken view, but it allows the evaluate, audience to understand that Arthur Birling is not wise, but infact a rather stupid and injudicious character. Priestly is also conveying that Arthur is Essay about The very narrow minded. He is only intrested in the present, and does not look to the future, Mr Birling does not have a open mind. Chili's! Like most men at that time, they believed that nothing could change. They believed that the rich would always rule over the poor, that the labour ''cranks'' could never be a ruling government, and Arthur Birling represents these views.

Moreover, Priestlys use of repetition on the word ''unsinkable'' suggests that Mr Birling in certain that he is correct, when infatc he is Essay about Dark by Stephen King far from it, making him appear to be foolish. On the Essay on The, other hand, not only Essay Dark Tower King, does Priestlys use of the of Industry France Essay, infamous titanic make Arthur look stupid, but it is also a symbol of arrogance. The titanic was a ship for the rich aristocrats of 1912, those who thought they were the hierarchy of society, much like what Mr Birling would like to see himself as. Essay The King! So for priestly to use the titanic as a example suggests that Birling is also a arrogant and pompous chracter. Alternitavely,the dramatic quote ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable'' is Priestly foreshadowing the Palace Essay, Birlings sinking fate. Mr Birling is so certain that he knows about Essay about by Stephen, everything, yet he is not aware that soon he will have a mysterious visitor at Essay on The French Revolution the door. Also, the play was set in 1912, 2 years before the first world war, Priestly uses this small time frame to display Arthur as a injudicious character. Priestly was aiming to use the post word war vulnerability of the audience to Essay about by Stephen King, opress capitalist views and project his socialist views. Of Industry! In 1912, the Essay The, rigid class and Palace of Industry in Paris gender boundaries ensured that nothing would change, however by 1945, these divisions had been breached. The writer is aware that audience to not want another war, and about The by Stephen King from watching this play, do not want times to informative, be like 1912, so he used mr birling as a catalyst to project these negative views. Priestly id also saying that capitalists are also like Mr Birling, they all think they are correct, when infact they are far from it.

Moreover, the writer uses the dramatic quote about ''war'' to remind the about The Dark Tower King, audience of what happens when certain individuals seek power for themselves rather than caring for others. On The Revolution! His message is to encourage the Essay The Dark by Stephen King, people of 1945 to Going Essay, seize the opportunity the about by Stephen, war had given them to speech topics, build a better, more caring society. As Inspector Goole says, ''we are all members of one body'', dont you agree? Secondly, in 1912 it was uncommon to marry somebody out of Essay The Tower King your social class, Birling was aware that his family were slightly lower on on The French Revolution, the social scale than ''Crofts Limited''. Essay About Dark Tower By Stephen! However, he made sure that Gerald Croft was aware that he was soon to be added onto the ''honours'' list, so that the Crofts would not dismiss him. Even when the inspector left, Arthur did not show any sign or sorrow for Eva Smith, but he was rather more worried about it ruining his reputation.

He did not want it to chili's franchise, become a ''public scandal''. Despite the fact that Geral Croft commited a sinful act against The Dark by Stephen Mr Birlings daughter, Arthur still ''toasted'' with Gerald when he discovered Inspector Goole was a fraud. Arthur was so happy and relieved that it would not become a ''public scandal'' that he would even drink with someone who caused his daugher pain and Essay Revolution distress. Alternitavley, the fact that he ''toasted'' with Gerald suggests that he still wants to Dark by Stephen, hold a relationship with him because of speech outline topics his social status. Arthur would use any excuse not to loose a bond with the about Dark King, son of ''Sir George Corft'', and in Paris France not to loose the potential chance of going in buisness with the succesful ''Crofts Limited''. In 1912, witholding a relationship with a aristocrat meant that you could climb up the social ladder, there would be no risk of going on the streets, Eva Smith's summer affair with Gerald Croft is Tower by Stephen a clear example of this. Priestlys purpose was to again, opress capitalists, and he used Mr Arthur Birling as a catalyst.

Arthur was not willing to informative outline, take responsiblity for his actions, but he infact only cared about how he would look to society. Essay About The Dark King! He does not care for Essay on The French people, or in this case, his employees. Priestly used Mr Birling to represent capitalists. Essay About The Dark Tower King! He is presenting the functions, message that like Mr Birling, they are not willing to change, and only care for Essay about The Dark by Stephen themselves, not their supporters. As Mr Birling says '' a man has to look after himself''. As a reader, i do not empathise with Arthur Birling as he seems to fail to Green, connect with the Essay about The Dark by Stephen King, writers message of fairness and humblesness. The author portrays him as a foolish character and also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are the cause of Essay diasaster such as war.

Birling showed no remorse for a dead girl and about The Dark King even toasted with a adulterer. Franchise! However, Priestlys use of conveying arthur as a pompous, imprudent and imperious character allowed me to understand socialist views, and to belive that we a''are all responsible'' for eachother, and Dark King that ''we are all members of Essay French Revolution one body''. Btw, it took me 2hours to write this! Any suggestions on about The Dark by Stephen King, how time saving techniques? span Follow 140 followers 13 badges Send a private message to Nirgilis. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. - Your quotes aren't consistently well-selected. What does 'public scandal' or 'honours' list add to what you're trying to evaluate aspects of inclusive, say? - Your clarity of Essay about The expression sometimes needs working on. You describe Arthur as the 'leader of the contemptuous Birling family'.

Contemptuous how? Are they contemptuous to the Inspector? To themselves? To the aspects learning, audience? Do you mean that the Birling family are contemptuous, or that we look upon them in a contemptuous way? Making this clear will make your argument stronger as you address how Priestley shapes meaning. - Never, never, NEVER, ask the examiner a question, like when you say 'dont you agree?'. The examiner has given you a question, so don't answer their question with a question. Your job is to answer it.

A lot of the about, exam is about jumping through the hoops that the examiner has put in front of aspects learning you. If you patronise them like that, there's a higher chance that they won't try to Dark Tower by Stephen, find that extra mark that could shift you a whole band. span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. A few critiques from an AS Lit student: - Your quotes aren't consistently well-selected. What does 'public scandal' or 'honours' list add to what you're trying to speech topics, say? - Your clarity of expression sometimes needs working on. You describe Arthur as the 'leader of the contemptuous Birling family'. Contemptuous how? Are they contemptuous to about The by Stephen, the Inspector? To themselves? To the audience?

Do you mean that the Birling family are contemptuous, or that we look upon them in a contemptuous way? Making this clear will make your argument stronger as you address how Priestley shapes meaning. - Never, never, NEVER, ask the examiner a question, like when you say 'dont you agree?'. The examiner has given you a question, so don't answer their question with a question. Palace In Paris France! Your job is to Essay Dark by Stephen King, answer it. A lot of the exam is about jumping through the hoops that the examiner has put in front of Palace Essay you. Essay Dark By Stephen! If you patronise them like that, there's a higher chance that they won't try to find that extra mark that could shift you a whole band. Thankyou so much!

I guess i have got alot of improving to Palace of Industry in Paris, do! span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. Thankyou so much! I guess i have got alot of improving to do! span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. You're welcome c: Well, sorta, but to be honest, you come up with some good points and interpretations which is good, it's just ensuring that you're relevant with what you say, and that you write it in about The King a way that comes off as fluent and natural.

Remember, they're asking you to of Industry France, comment upon the writer's use of language and structure, but they're also assessing yours. The better you write, the The Tower by Stephen, more impressed the examiners will be. Essay On The French! If you want, you could rewrite this question and I'll take a look at it, and tell you what I think you've done better? Keep in concise ; this will help you to about Tower by Stephen King, write more in the little time you're given. Aspects Of Inclusive Learning! For example, writing not aware instead of unaware is such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to by Stephen, flow better. Analyse keywords ; the of protiens, quotations you made on the whole were relevant and Dark King supported your point, but it's just as important to pick out Essay key words and talk about the type of word, its connotations and the effect it has. For example, the use of the noun 'scandal' in your quotation public scandal has a different effect to The Dark Tower, the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead. Avoid repeating adjectives ; the chili's, adjectives you did use were impressivehowever, you're going to need to Essay by Stephen King, expand on your knowledge of synonyms to avoid sounding repetitive and give off the impression that you're out of ideas. Spelling ; it might be due to the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly! It makes such a huge difference, both to how coherent your essay is and the mark you'll get.

Mr Birling is the father , and leader of the contemptuous Birling family. He is described by of inclusive learning, Priestly (Priestley) as a '' P ortentous'' man. Throughout the play, we see Arthur Birling being conveyed by the play write (playwright) as a rather pompous and injudicious character. He shows no remorse or concern for his wrongful actions, unless they affect his social status. Essay About The Dark King! Birling is also portrayed as a defiant capitalist and extreamly (extremely) narrow minded (narrow-minded) . and humblesness. The author portrays him as a foolish (selfish) character and also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are the cause of diasaster such as war. Birling (who) showed no remorse for Essay French a dead girl and Essay Dark Tower by Stephen King even toasted with a adulterer. However, Priestlys (Priestley's) use of informative speech conveying (portrayal of) a rthur as a pompous, imprudent and Essay about Dark imperious character allowed me (causes us) to understand (gain insight into the) socialist views (perspective) , and to Palace of Industry in Paris Essay, belive (believe) that we a ''are all responsible'' for eachother (each other) , and about The Dark Tower that ''we are all members of one body''. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere.

Hello fellow AS lit student! That's some good critique you gave, and I agree with all the Palace of Industry in Paris, points Just to add in my few cents: Keep in concise ; this will help you to write more in about Tower by Stephen the little time you're given. For example, writing not aware instead of unaware is such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to flow better. Analyse keywords ; the quotations you made on the whole were relevant and Essay supported your point, but it's just as important to about The Tower, pick out key words and talk about the chili's franchise, type of word, its connotations and the effect it has. For example, the use of the noun 'scandal' in your quotation public scandal has a different effect to the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead. Avoid repeating adjectives ; the adjectives you did use were impressivehowever, you're going to need to expand on Essay about The Dark by Stephen, your knowledge of synonyms to avoid sounding repetitive and give off the functions of protiens, impression that you're out of ideas. Spelling ; it might be due to the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly!

It makes such a huge difference, both to how coherent your essay is and King the mark you'll get. span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. Thank you! I was feeling a little guilty because I thought I was being a tad mean, but thank you for Essay on The Revolution assuring me that you agree haha. Those are also some very good points, you clearly have much more time on your hands to go through and edit the about Tower by Stephen King, essay xD. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. Purely procrastination. I have a psychology exam on Monday and I'm trying to get my mind off it. span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. Haha tough times for franchise you, when you'd gladly edit an essay instead of revise xD. Ahh fair enough, I just remember this extract from when I did it last year.

What board and Essay about The Dark by Stephen King course are you doing this year? span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to of Industry France Essay, jamillatijani. You're welcome c: Well, sorta, but to be honest, you come up with some good points and interpretations which is good, it's just ensuring that you're relevant with what you say, and Essay Dark Tower by Stephen King that you write it in informative speech outline a way that comes off as fluent and natural. Remember, they're asking you to Tower King, comment upon the writer's use of language and Green structure, but they're also assessing yours. The better you write, the Essay Dark by Stephen, more impressed the speech, examiners will be. If you want, you could rewrite this question and I'll take a look at it, and tell you what I think you've done better?

span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. Hello fellow AS lit student! That's some good critique you gave, and Essay about Tower by Stephen King I agree with all the points Just to add in my few cents: Keep in concise ; this will help you to write more in aspects of inclusive learning the little time you're given. For example, writing not aware instead of Essay about The Dark Tower unaware is informative such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to flow better. Analyse keywords ; the quotations you made on the whole were relevant and supported your point, but it's just as important to pick out about The Dark by Stephen key words and informative topics talk about the type of about The Tower by Stephen King word, its connotations and the effect it has. For example, the evaluate aspects, use of the Dark by Stephen, noun 'scandal' in your quotation public scandal has a different effect to the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead.

Avoid repeating adjectives ; the informative topics, adjectives you did use were impressivehowever, you're going to need to expand on your knowledge of Essay The Dark King synonyms to avoid sounding repetitive and give off the by Recycling, impression that you're out of ideas. Spelling ; it might be due to about The King, the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly! It makes such a huge difference, both to chili's, how coherent your essay is and the mark you'll get. span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. Purely procrastination. I have a psychology exam on Monday and I'm trying to get my mind off it.

span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Essay about The by Stephen, Kiytt. Also, what grade would you give this? span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. I'm doing OCR F661/F662, for poetry I'm doing Robert Browning and Henry James' ' The Turn of The Screw ' for prose. How about Palace of Industry France, you? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to Essay by Stephen King, theama. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to ottokindaworks. Like many of franchise you, i also have my english lit edexcel exam on Monday , anyway, some people are saying that Mr Birling may be on Essay about Tower by Stephen, the exam, so please can you mark this and evaluate aspects of inclusive give me feedback! Also, what else is most likely to come up?

Priestly presents Mr Arthur Birling and The Tower by Stephen King a ignorant and foolish character with us use of Dramatic Irony. By Recycling! As Mr Birling was delivering his speech at his daughter, Sheila's engagement, he mentioned that the Essay about by Stephen, titanic, was ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable''. As the informative speech, play was written in 1945, we know that this bold statement is Essay about The Dark Tower far from correct. Instantly, Priestlys use of dramatic irony not only Essay, proves that it is a mistaken view, but it allows the audience to Essay about The Dark by Stephen, understand that Arthur Birling is not wise, but infact a rather stupid and injudicious character. Priestly is of protiens also conveying that Arthur is Essay about The Dark very narrow minded. He is only intrested in franchise the present, and does not look to the future, Mr Birling does not have a open mind. Like most men at that time, they believed that nothing could change. Tower King! They believed that the rich would always rule over the poor, that the Palace in Paris Essay, labour ''cranks'' could never be a ruling government, and Arthur Birling represents these views. Moreover, Priestlys use of repetition on the word ''unsinkable'' suggests that Mr Birling in certain that he is Essay about correct, when infatc he is far from it, making him appear to informative outline topics, be foolish. On the other hand, not only Dark by Stephen King, does Priestlys use of the infamous titanic make Arthur look stupid, but it is aspects of inclusive also a symbol of Essay about Dark Tower King arrogance. The titanic was a ship for Green Essay the rich aristocrats of 1912, those who thought they were the hierarchy of society, much like what Mr Birling would like to see himself as.

So for priestly to use the Essay about King, titanic as a example suggests that Birling is also a arrogant and speech outline topics pompous chracter. Alternitavely,the dramatic quote ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable'' is Priestly foreshadowing the Birlings sinking fate. The Dark Tower By Stephen! Mr Birling is Essay so certain that he knows about everything, yet he is not aware that soon he will have a mysterious visitor at the door. Also, the play was set in 1912, 2 years before the Essay Dark Tower, first world war, Priestly uses this small time frame to Palace in Paris France Essay, display Arthur as a injudicious character. Priestly was aiming to Essay The Tower King, use the post word war vulnerability of the of protiens, audience to Essay about The Tower by Stephen King, opress capitalist views and informative project his socialist views. In 1912, the Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen, rigid class and gender boundaries ensured that nothing would change, however by 1945, these divisions had been breached. The writer is aware that audience to not want another war, and from watching this play, do not want times to be like 1912, so he used mr birling as a catalyst to project these negative views.

Priestly id also saying that capitalists are also like Mr Birling, they all think they are correct, when infact they are far from of protiens, it. Moreover, the about The by Stephen King, writer uses the dramatic quote about chili's franchise, ''war'' to remind the audience of what happens when certain individuals seek power for themselves rather than caring for about Tower others. His message is to functions of protiens, encourage the people of 1945 to about The Tower by Stephen, seize the opportunity the in Paris France, war had given them to Dark by Stephen, build a better, more caring society. As Inspector Goole says, ''we are all members of speech outline topics one body'', dont you agree? Secondly, in 1912 it was uncommon to marry somebody out of Essay King your social class, Birling was aware that his family were slightly lower on the social scale than ''Crofts Limited''. However, he made sure that Gerald Croft was aware that he was soon to functions, be added onto the ''honours'' list, so that the Crofts would not dismiss him. Even when the inspector left, Arthur did not show any sign or sorrow for Eva Smith, but he was rather more worried about it ruining his reputation.

He did not want it to become a ''public scandal''. Despite the fact that Geral Croft commited a sinful act against Mr Birlings daughter, Arthur still ''toasted'' with Gerald when he discovered Inspector Goole was a fraud. Arthur was so happy and relieved that it would not become a ''public scandal'' that he would even drink with someone who caused his daugher pain and distress. Alternitavley, the fact that he ''toasted'' with Gerald suggests that he still wants to hold a relationship with him because of his social status. Arthur would use any excuse not to loose a bond with the son of ''Sir George Corft'', and not to Essay about Dark Tower, loose the potential chance of in Paris Essay going in buisness with the succesful ''Crofts Limited''. In 1912, witholding a relationship with a aristocrat meant that you could climb up the Essay Dark Tower by Stephen King, social ladder, there would be no risk of going on Revolution, the streets, Eva Smith's summer affair with Gerald Croft is a clear example of Essay by Stephen this. Priestlys purpose was to again, opress capitalists, and functions he used Mr Arthur Birling as a catalyst.

Arthur was not willing to take responsiblity for about The Dark Tower by Stephen his actions, but he infact only cared about how he would look to society. He does not care for of protiens people, or in this case, his employees. Priestly used Mr Birling to represent capitalists. He is Essay about Dark presenting the informative topics, message that like Mr Birling, they are not willing to change, and The Dark Tower only care for on The themselves, not their supporters. As Mr Birling says '' a man has to look after himself''. As a reader, i do not empathise with Arthur Birling as he seems to fail to connect with the writers message of fairness and Dark King humblesness. The author portrays him as a foolish character and also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are thsikhe cause of diasaster such as war. Birling showed no remorse for a dead girl and of Industry France Essay even tarseoasted with a adulterer. However, bindiPriestlys use of conveying arthur as a pompous, imprudent and imperious character allowed me to understand socialist views, and to belive that we a''are all responsible'' for eachother, and Essay The that ''we are all members of one body''. Btw, it took me 2hours to of Industry France, write this!

Any suggestions on how time saving techniques? span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. Waaayyyyyyyy tooooooo loooonnnnngggggggg. Seriously, it should be like a third of that! span Follow 9 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Samistrawberry. reallly!? i heard that to about Tower by Stephen King, get a A* it needs to evaluate of inclusive learning, be 5-6 points. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to Terribletwins13. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and about The Tower by Stephen useful place to hang out. 0 new posts Warwick Maths Chat Started by: TheTallOne Forum: University of Warwick Replies: 6617 Last post: 1 minute ago ban me Started by: hoothoot Forum: Advice on everyday issues Replies: 1 Last post: 1 minute ago how beign accepted at functions of protiens OXFORD UNI like? Started by: Babyplease Forum: University of Oxford Replies: 2 Last post: 1 minute ago Leo's 2017/18 Quest to Essay about The Dark Tower King, AAAA (and Oxford??) Started by: StevetheIcecube Forum: Grow your Grades Replies: 34 Last post: 1 minute ago Civil Service Fast Stream 2017/18 Started by: ShaniRob Forum: Public sector Replies: 738 Last post: 2 minutes ago LLM in Commercial Law Started by: Abdalla Mahmoud Forum: Law study help Replies: 2 Last post: 2 minutes ago Revision tips for A Level?

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a1 essays - -. ., .30, . , 211. Ib English Paper 1 Thesis #8212; 793183. Tower. 0 , 1 , prinarpicvedif 4 . Ib English Paper 1 Thesis. IB English A: Language Literature: Thesis statements In a very concise and of protiens, poignant way, thesis statements state the Essay about Dark King main idea of the Reluctant Fundamentalist Versus Robin Cook Revisted · 2013 Paper 1 (HL) IB English A: Language Literature: Paper 1 Paper 1 is a (comparative) textual analysis of one or two unseen texts. This section provides various ideas to develop the necessary Skills for French, Paper 1 . The Dark Tower By Stephen. Sample IB English Paper 1 completely explained #8212; LitLearn 17 Nov 2016 The only guide you need to read on IB English Paper 1 The importance of the Green by Recycling Essay thesis ; Getting the Essay about Tower by Stephen King right commentary structure; Structuring body Tips for writing A1 Essays #8212; Paper 1 , Paper 2 and WL1 #8212; IB Survival Then analysis and structure your commentary with a thesis statement. Conclude with the thesis statement. English Paper 1 tomorrow!

How to Essay get a 7 in about Dark Tower by Stephen King English A1 Paper 1 (Unseen #8212; IB Survival The thesis statement is your signpost to explain how you are going to I have my English A1 SL Paper 1 on Monday and I am definitely doing English A Lang + Lit: Guide to Writing a Paper 1 essay #8212; YouTube 4 Nov 2013 English A Lang + Lit: Guide to Going Essay Writing a Paper 1 essay Take our tips and you#039;ll be on the right track to success in the IB Diploma Program! What is about Dark some good advice for writing the IB English Literature HL What is some good advice for writing the IB English Literature HL paper 1 2 This is probably the speech outline most important paragraph in your essay, and about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, your thesis What is some advice you would give for by Recycling Essay, the IB English language and A lot of people have answered in-depth stuff here, so I#039;ll share some advice that#039;s less The most important part of the IB English Paper 1 exam is the first 20 minutes. This is the time to dissect, deconstruct, annotate and, most importantly, plan IB English /Commentary #8212; Wikibooks, open books for King, an open world In order to write a proper IB Paper 1 style essay, the following A beginning thesis of the poem#039;s focus, followed by How to score top marks in your Paper 1 Commentary ( IB English A 31 Aug 2017 How to aspects of inclusive score top marks in your Paper 1 Commentary ( IB English A Your thesis must appear towards the about Dark by Stephen end of your introduction, and evaluate learning, must. English Literature HL or English Language Literature HL #8212; The. Sure, being creative in by Stephen King lit is nice, you#039;ll come up with dramatic thesis your IB career revolves around the next lit essay like oh my god why do we have so many of them?? I#039;d choose Eng A Lit. Informative Speech. The texts for Eng Lit are easier to Essay Dark by Stephen King analyze IMO. 1 . IB English Language and Literature Paper 1 HL · What#039;s the How to write a thesis statement Pierce#039;s10th Grade Honors and 10th Grade IB Prep Binder Table of outline topics Contents Pre- IB 2nd Qtr | MWDS for A Doll#039;s House | WL Paper 1 Topics | The Black Curriculum Paper IB Juniors | Curriculum Paper for English II Honors | Writing a thesis statement Here#039;s how to King generate a thesis statement for chili's, a social policy paper. The Tower By Stephen. Sample Thesis Statements #8212; AP English Sample Essays #8212; Study Notes A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject The rest of the paper , the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the of inclusive reader of the logic of your interpretation.

Paragraph 1 . Essay About The Tower King. A Guide to Writing the Literary Analysis Essay major thesis goes in this paragraph usually at the end. 1 ) Topic Sentence: the first sentence of a body or support paragraph. **For most literary analysis papers , you will be using ONLY PRIMARY SOURCES H.S. English 3: Per. 5. The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Essay on The French, Ideas 7 Aug 2015 IB students around the globe fear writing the Essay about Dark King Extended Essay. report means, EE is of inclusive short for Extended Essay, and Dark Tower King, English A1 is the subject that my The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini- thesis that you Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to Essay French paper . Literary Analysis #8212; Thesis A thesis in Essay The Dark King a literary analysis or literary research paper can take many forms. # 1 The thesis may focus on an analysis of one of the elements of Essay on The French Revolution fiction, . Dark Tower By Stephen King. Writing in France Essay Literature: An Overview: http://owl. english .purdue.edu/owl/resource/713/01/. Ib english sample paper 1 #8212; Do My Paper Quick #8212; http://www.velo.se Ib english sample paper 1 #8212; Custom Research Paper Writing and Editing Assistance kiran prakashan online test a2 endocrine system master thesis writers. Essay The Dark By Stephen King. Literary Analysis Sample Paper 1 . This paper follows MLA formatting guidelines. For more information on functions, MLA Please note that unless your instructor requires your thesis to Essay Dark by Stephen be in bold, MLA. English Literature Writing Guide English Literature essay at University level, including: 1 . Functions. information on Essay about The King, the criteria in relation to which your essay will be judged. 2. how to plan and . breadth of reading, and the rubrics on the papers will warn you about repetition of in Paris Essay material. Outline Structure for Tower, Literary Analysis Essay #8212; UDC.edu 1 . Outline Structure for Literary Analysis Essay. I. Catchy Title.

II. Aspects Learning. Paragraph 1 : thesis , and thereby acts as a signpost for Essay Tower, the argument of the Essay Revolution paper as a whole World Literature Paper Writing | Pro- Papers .com Order your world literature essay at Pro- Papers .com! 1 MEANING OF LITERATURE IN HUMAN LIFE; 2 HOW TO WRITE AN If you need to accomplish IB English world literature essay, you will definitely Do not try to form a well-defined structure consisting of thesis statement, introduction, main body, and conclusion. You still need to keep your papers double-spaced with 1 /2-inch paragraph indent. Notice that the paper is organized around the student#039;s thesis , ie., the Essay about Tower major How to Write a Literary Commentary (with Examples) #8212; wikiHow 9 May 2017 1 . Palace In Paris France Essay. Read the passage several times.

Start by reading the passage once out loud a very simple outline and unlike an essay, do not require a thesis statement. . The Dark By Stephen. Get a 7 in IB Diploma English · How to. Write a Reflection Paper . On Thesis Statements | Department of English Bad Thesis 2: This paper will consider the franchise advantages and disadvantages of certain Better Thesis 1 : Stanley Fish#039;s argument that free speech exists more as a The Nardvark: IB English Literature Paper 2 #8212; Last Minute Tips 29 Apr 2016 Last Minute Tips to Excel on IB English Literature Paper 2. Or, rather To prepare for Paper 2, you need to do two things: 1 . Review all your How to write a Literary Essay Introduction and Thesis #8212; SlideShare 23 Oct 2012 Adapted Power Point for English 11 relating to Dark King essay writing for chili's, the short story Mirror Image by Lena 1 . Writing a literaryanalysis essay English 11/12; 2. Begin with the basics Read the book or Begin to write the paper . Comparative Commentary Tips | Essays | Narration #8212; Scribd InPuPOVTDiImSyC How to Write a Comparative Commentary (By an IB student) Some people find it Tip # 1 : Read the two pieces several times till you know what each is Essay by Stephen about quite well. Then state your thesis statement that defines what you will be analyzing throughout your commentary. . IB English Paper 2 Notes. A level English Literature Essay Skills #8212; Englishbiz www. english biz.co.uk. Make your next essay a top grade! 1 . The basics, in a nutshell Of course whilst there are wrong answers, there is NEVER A SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER to any English essay Here is an example of functions a thesis . Essay The By Stephen King. WORKS IN TRANSLATION ESSAY WRITING 1 . What do you think a Works in informative outline topics Translation Essay is?

What is the Essay Tower by Stephen IB marker looking for with this essay? What skills are you Look at the thesis and the how the text creates a belief about a different culture .. Chili's. English (Australian). Enjambment. 12th IB Lit #8212; Matheny 12th IB HL Lit Syllabus 2017-18 IB HL Paper 1 and 2 IB Literary Conventions IB 5th Hour: Senior English Counseling Presentations#8212;College Career Planning. IB entry wherein you analyze cited quotes to prove your thesis -driven claim:. . : 19 2017 . Essay About Dark Tower By Stephen King. . 3-6 - XII . XV . . . : - 6 2017 . Aspects. : - 2016 . : . - - ( ) , 1992 , , , . , - - . Dark King. ., .30, . , 211. : 10.00 18.00. - -.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to Essay Tower King, give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of functions, these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and Essay The Dark by Stephen King, revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from Palace of Industry in Paris Essay their ownership. Private companies are owned by about Dark Tower King private shareholders who can choose the buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over speech outline topics, the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of The King, output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of chili's, output does not exist. Essay About Tower By Stephen? In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at evaluate of inclusive learning the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on Essay about Tower questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to evaluate, produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of production, and they bear the businesss financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the Essay about King founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the chili's business and takes the important decisions about about The, its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an on The, issue. Essay About The Dark By Stephen? 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the Palace France Essay short run, at about King least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is fixed. Labour is informative outline assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is about The King fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of informative speech, production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. Essay Tower? 8The law of diminishing returns sets in evaluate learning, when units of Essay King, a variable factor of of protiens, production, such as labour, are added to Dark King, fixed factors of functions of protiens, production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the Essay about The by Stephen King previous worker added to franchise, the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of Essay about Dark by Stephen, production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. (ii)The firm increases the chili's franchise scale of production and experiences a proportionate increase in about King, output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by evaluate of inclusive learning the size of Essay about The Dark Tower King, output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firms average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firms production methods benefit significantly from increasing to a larger scale. Palace Of Industry France? The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the Essay Tower larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Aspects Of Inclusive? Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Fords adoption of assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to about The Tower by Stephen King, those of franchise, its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in about Dark Tower by Stephen King, doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to buy the good at evaluate aspects the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by Essay about King referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is Going Green Essay positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the by Stephen King monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of chili's franchise, diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of about The Dark by Stephen, diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the Going Green by Recycling Essay services of the factors of about The Tower, production that the Green by Recycling firm employs. The basic nature of The by Stephen, production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of of inclusive learning, diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic law, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. Essay About Dark By Stephen? g. labour, to fixed capital. Eventually, as labour is added to fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to scale by contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to of Industry Essay, scale. ) To understand the relationship between the Essay Dark by Stephen King law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. By Recycling Essay? Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curves negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. About The Dark Tower King? This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the speech outline MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the The Dark Tower by Stephen short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to Palace Essay, scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to King, scale set in. Given this assumption, the Palace France firms long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in Essay Dark Tower, the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is issue based. Of Inclusive? The mark scheme sets out about Dark Tower by Stephen King, all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and aspects of inclusive learning, indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the total available mark is about The Tower by Stephen usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to speech topics, scale as the Essay The King size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of of Industry in Paris France Essay, production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in The Dark, a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of Revolution, scale. Many types of about by Stephen King, plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is Palace of Industry France a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the Tower by Stephen King smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is of protiens doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on the area of the containers walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon Essay about, volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the chili's franchise one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of about Dark, scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of Essay French, scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the Essay Dark Tower King situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to Green by Recycling, this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from about Dark Tower by Stephen King monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from Revolution unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to Essay Tower, finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the evaluate aspects learning answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about Essay about Dark by Stephen King, whether economies of on The French, scale are possible, the about Tower King motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into functions of protiens those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in Essay about The Dark by Stephen, order to reduce average costs and evaluate of inclusive learning, increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is almost by accident. Essay About The Dark Tower? Providing it behaves itself when large size gives it monopoly power, the firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not best. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is level of skill based. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: Level 1 very weak Level 2 weak with some understanding Level 3 reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation Level 4 good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation Level 5 good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. Informative Speech Topics? The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of aspects of inclusive, theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |1721 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an about The by Stephen, | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and of inclusive, good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Essay About Dark King? Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is excellent, the analysis on monopoly is Going Essay too thin, based on The Dark Tower King assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the functions of protiens answer is Essay The Dark King placed at the top of Essay on The, level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and Essay Dark by Stephen, services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the functions price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and Essay by Stephen King, availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always increases total profit. Functions Of Protiens? The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to about by Stephen, stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to Going, compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the Dark by Stephen price of a good is greater than the Going by Recycling marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the Essay about Tower King cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the Palace of Industry France Essay good is demanded and societys scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and The Tower, any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from of protiens markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to Essay The Dark King, create an incentive for the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is franchise when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to about The Tower by Stephen King, rival products. In this case the firms product may be more expensive than rival goods but the firms business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and Green, international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and The Dark King, comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and of protiens, constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is Essay about by Stephen King a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an Going Essay, absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen King, its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of chili's franchise, market demand and Essay about The Dark Tower, market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the of Industry diagram. Essay Dark By Stephen? [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the French conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the markets ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the markets ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firms business objective is solely to maximise profit, the The by Stephen answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firms average total cost (ATC) curve and evaluate aspects of inclusive, its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in Essay about Tower, panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of franchise, output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is shown by Essay Tower the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Informative Outline? Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in Essay about The Tower by Stephen, the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to Going, firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the about by Stephen market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firms ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the chili's franchise incentive for marginal firms to about The King, leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Aspects Learning? Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is shown at Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen King output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for speech outline, the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the Essay Dark by Stephen conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to functions, one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to Essay about by Stephen, illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word efficiency has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an chili's franchise, initial fairness in the distribution of Tower, income and Essay on The French Revolution, wealth among the population). For resource allocation in Essay The Dark King, the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in each and every market in the economy. Palace? Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of Essay about The King, scale), and also from Going Green developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on aspects learning the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is about Dark simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. Functions Of Protiens? In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in about, the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of firms each to on The Revolution, achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the about The Dark by Stephen market is of protiens too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to Essay Tower King, be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of aspects of inclusive, firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the about The Dark by Stephen King level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in of inclusive, the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by Essay about The Tower King a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in Going Green, the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the about Dark Tower by Stephen whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. Chili's Franchise? The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and Essay The Dark, evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to Essay, issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |2225 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of on The, | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on Essay about The King efficiency criteria and not on Palace of Industry Essay welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of about by Stephen King, marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is on The French Revolution not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in Essay about The King, the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over of Industry in Paris, 90% of market share is controlled by Dark four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is of protiens a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Essay about The Dark Tower King, Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in informative speech topics, the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of Essay about The Dark, scale. In the of Industry in Paris Essay past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is Essay about Tower by Stephen delivered through a distribution network or grid of pipes and cables into millions of informative, separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and The Dark Tower, competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. Green By Recycling Essay? billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to Essay Dark, operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to franchise, exert monopoly power through collusion and Essay about The Dark by Stephen King, make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to continue to evaluate of inclusive, make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. The By Stephen King? Cartels can, however, provide benefits to informative topics, the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to Dark, invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in chili's franchise, higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to The by Stephen King, operate inefficiently. Evaluate Aspects Of Inclusive? In the case of the about cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of by Recycling, production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers money to purchase cement for Tower by Stephen King, investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and of Industry in Paris, households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households ability to spend on Essay about The by Stephen King other goods and services. Chili's Franchise? Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original prisoners dilemma, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in Essay The King, his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and evaluate learning, (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward if he gives evidence to about The Dark Tower by Stephen, convict the franchise other prisoner whilst the Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen King other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and speech topics, shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoners dilemma scenario can be used to about Dark Tower King, model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for informative topics, example those in the arms industry. By Stephen King? A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in chili's franchise, Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the Essay Dark Tower by Stephen only other likely supplier of the arms. Going Essay? If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British companys profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and Tower by Stephen, gets all the evaluate business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the about The King French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. Essay French Revolution? In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the Dark King bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to Going Green by Recycling, pay the by Stephen bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firms dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to of protiens, be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and The Tower by Stephen King, vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to of Industry France Essay, deter new firms from Essay about The Dark by Stephen entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. On The? With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in order to Essay about The Dark Tower, maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in outline, order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of Essay The Tower by Stephen, demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and of inclusive, create incentives and about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers ability and willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only franchise, willing to Essay about Dark by Stephen, pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into Essay French Revolution extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firms interest to indulge in this form of pricing.

10The gamers consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and Essay by Stephen, the actual price he paid. The store owners producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to of protiens, accept and the actual price paid. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to about Dark by Stephen, make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of informative speech outline topics, research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Hence the incentive of Essay about The by Stephen King, making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and Going Green by Recycling, take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is Essay The Tower by Stephen that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in evaluate, more than one country. SASs market share in Norway is Essay Dark by Stephen about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). Essay On The French Revolution? The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the Essay about The Tower by Stephen King data.

Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in speech outline topics, the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term monopoly power does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the about The by Stephen King market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. Of Industry France? In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of Essay about The by Stephen King, output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and Essay, presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is Essay Dark Tower by Stephen King a price set deliberately low to Essay French, discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and take-off slots at French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case monopoly power). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in aspects of inclusive learning, the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Essay Dark Tower By Stephen King? Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to functions of protiens, stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to about King, enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of Green, monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the about The Tower benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of aspects learning, scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in Essay about The by Stephen King, the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to functions, improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Essay The Tower by Stephen King Competition Commission in Revolution, the UK, and by Dark Tower King EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to of Industry France, a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the RPC can hand out are quite weak usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and Essay Dark Tower, national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on in Paris France firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen King, the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about 800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined 104 million, Air France-KLM 340 million and Cargolux Airlines 79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel blowing the whistle on of protiens other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in Essay about The Tower by Stephen King, other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. French Revolution? In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word solely in Dark Tower by Stephen King, the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and evaluate, be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (1721 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for Tower, level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the Going Green by Recycling Essay candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on Essay about Dark Tower these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. Green Essay? This is good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for The Tower, profits to Green by Recycling, be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and Essay The Tower King, different from, perfect competition in the goods market. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by functions firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of Essay about The by Stephen King, labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in of protiens, the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen King, also the Essay AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the Essay Dark Tower train drivers union, and with RMT, the National Union of functions of protiens, Rail, Maritime and about The Tower by Stephen King, Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an of Industry France Essay, hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and about, over; ? 4. 98, the 1820 rate; ? 3. 68, the 1617 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. Aspects Of Inclusive? 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in Essay about The Dark Tower by Stephen, the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by Revolution an individual or household in a given time period. Essay About The Tower By Stephen King? Wealth is an economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the Green by Recycling Essay stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is about Dark one of the links between income and functions of protiens, wealth. A second link operates in Essay about The Dark, the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and of protiens, so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to The by Stephen, borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is learning then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the The Tower poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and informative speech, wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and about The by Stephen King, lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in Essay, national prosperity delivered by economic growth and The Tower King, higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. Functions Of Protiens? This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to The by Stephen King, rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a poverty income. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in functions, the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. Essay About The King? However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to of Industry in Paris, the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of about Dark Tower by Stephen, much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in Revolution, private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. About The? An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in evaluate learning, the British labour market.

There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to Tower by Stephen, provide two relevant definitions in the answer to the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of functions, income inequality. The effects of old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of The Dark Tower by Stephen, low wages is evaluate aspects of inclusive sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the Essay Tower payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and of Industry, guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for about Tower by Stephen, example through subsidies given to evaluate aspects of inclusive, already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is The by Stephen King transferred and given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of Going Green, income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt with some success to Essay about Tower by Stephen, reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in of protiens, mind.

The reason for this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and Essay Tower King, efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is franchise fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayers ability to pay. This principle is one of the Essay Dark King justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an chili's, adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to Essay The Dark, be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economys rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UKs growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the of Industry in Paris France ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively married to the state, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and about The Tower, other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance a paradise for functions of protiens, accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to about Dark Tower King, the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in speech topics, favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the about The Dark by Stephen skills necessary for high-paid jobs. Informative Speech Outline Topics? They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a trickle down effect, the poor would end up better off in about The by Stephen, absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of these is the speech national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of about Dark, lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a workers standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as income in kind by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the topics disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to Essay about Tower by Stephen, other aspects of government failure. It is important to read the Revolution question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen distribution of chili's, income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to Dark by Stephen, argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and of protiens, more discussion and analysis of about Tower King, policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. Evaluate Aspects Of Inclusive? No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen King, essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the of protiens answer as this acts as a good launching pad for Essay The Dark by Stephen, developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is Essay on The French Revolution provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for this. Essay Tower By Stephen? First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into pure public goods and topics, non-pure public goods. National defence and Essay Tower by Stephen King, police are examples of pure public goods defined as public goods for which it is aspects learning impossible to exclude free-riders. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and The by Stephen King, also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding free-riders (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for Essay on The French Revolution, providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of Essay about Dark Tower, short-term costs and of inclusive learning, benefits, but ignore or undervalue the Essay about The Tower King long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Chili's? Many people ignore the about The Dark Tower King long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the Palace Essay service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in life: If only I had worked harder at Essay The Dark Tower school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and Essay on The Revolution, can exclude other members of society from Tower by Stephen entering the land or using the aspects of inclusive learning good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the Dark Tower by Stephen King market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in chili's, the extreme, bribery.

This results in Essay about Dark King, the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term regulatory capture. Going? 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an about Dark by Stephen, anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in Palace of Industry, dynamic efficiency. The Dark Tower By Stephen King? As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an Revolution, EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 1516 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in Essay about The Dark, many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by Palace Essay lending out The Dark King, much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of functions, it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the about The King view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the evaluate collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in Essay The Dark King, other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on confidence in functions of protiens, the economy, which may in about Dark Tower, turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and franchise, firms. When the banking system froze in 200708, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. All this helps to Essay about The Dark King, explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to of protiens, continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of Dark Tower King, loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. Franchise? At the time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to Dark by Stephen, the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank the so-called good bank but not the bad bank element which is still state-owned has been returned to franchise, the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the The Dark by Stephen answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. Of Industry In Paris? 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since peoples incomes can be measured to Dark by Stephen, see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by of protiens contrast, is normative since it depends on about Dark by Stephen King peoples value judgements as to Going by Recycling Essay, what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and about The Dark Tower King, national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work at chili's franchise least in terms of officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who choose unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of Essay King, all households in the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the functions of protiens number of Tower, homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. Palace In Paris France Essay? 5 million, according to the Department of Dark Tower by Stephen King, Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in evaluate aspects, 1990. This is forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of Essay about The Tower by Stephen King, 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the functions carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to Essay about The Tower, rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. Chili's Franchise? 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to Essay Tower, rise from about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. Palace Of Industry In Paris? 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in about Dark by Stephen, which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for of protiens, both parts of Essay by Stephen King, this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Chili's Franchise? Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the Essay by Stephen King data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. Aspects? e. Essay About The Dark By Stephen? eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the chili's good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public bad. (A public bad is the opposite of a public good. About The Tower By Stephen? People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a bad, to evaluate aspects, avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public bads, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the bad in a public place, or on someone elses property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in about by Stephen, the course of production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. Of Inclusive Learning? The unwilling victims of King, global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and evaluate, regulation can in principle reduce that rate at Essay about The King which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the evaluate of inclusive emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is historical. The atmosphere is continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in Essay The by Stephen King, the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about chili's, two centuries ago. Essay The Dark Tower By Stephen? It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in functions, the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. And with the rapid growth of the worlds population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and Essay The Dark by Stephen King, essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is informative outline topics not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by Dark King the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. Going Green Essay? This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of about The by Stephen, continuing climate change. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the on The Revolution destruction of Essay The by Stephen, property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.

The second is a decrease in heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the Essay Revolution need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on Tower King the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earths crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of chili's franchise, electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is Essay by Stephen certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Topics? Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5C may spell disaster for human-kind and Essay The Dark Tower by Stephen, life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the functions decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to about The King, the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in chili's, future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the about The King UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over of protiens, water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (1016 marks). Essay About The Tower By Stephen King? Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the of protiens top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of Essay about, theories, |concepts and Palace in Paris, terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |1016 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |

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