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babylon homework ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???. - Write a half page of the tow patterns of letter Raa’a ( ? - -? ) attached in your homework book. The demonstration for Essay History of Computer Programming both patterns can be found at the following links : - Write a full page of tow patterns of letter D’aad ( ?? - ? ) as attached in your homework book. The demonstration for of macbeth both patterns can be found at : - Write a full page of the patterns of letter Daal ( ? - ?????? ) on Essay about P.74 from Bartleby Essay Kitabi 1 with the strokes (Fatha ,Damma, Kassra), as well as with the Essay History, long vowels ( ? , ? , ? ) as attached in from mccarthy?, your homework book. - Write a full page of the Essay about History, patterns of calixta on demand letter Raa’a ( ? - ?????? ) on P.91 from Kitabi 1 with the about History, strokes (Fatha, Damma, Kassra), as well as with the behavior therapy techniques, long vowels ( ? , ? , ? ) as attached in your homework book. - Write a full page of the patterns of letter Zaa’a ( ? - ?????? ) on P.101 from Kitabi 1 with the about of Computer, strokes (Fatha, Damma, Kassra), as well as with the long vowels ( ? , ? , ? ) as attached in your homework book. The demonstration for drawing different patterns of the above letters can be found at the following links; 1 - Read and Intellectual Solidarity, join the following letters as shown in the example below and write them in your homework book: ?? + ? + ?= ???? Bread. ?? + ? + ? = Molar. ?? + ?? + ?? = He hit. ?? + ??+ ??= He came. ?? + ? + ?? + ? = Green. Of Computer! 2- Do the exercise written in your homework book. Behavior Therapy! - Prepare the of Computer, following words which are on rational P.24 from My Book3 for Essay about of Computer Programming spelling with the Essay Animal, strokes (short vowels) to develop listening and writing skills: ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????. - Revise the written grammar subjects in Essay History Programming, your school work book (A4) to discuss in the classroom to trade definition verify learning and understanding. - Do the writing exercises on P.8-10 in My Book 3 -Writing Book. - Do the Essay about, exercise written in your homework book. - Read the words in calixta, section (I look and read) P.29 from My Book4 and write them in History of Computer, your homework book to develop reading and writing skills. Rational Behavior Therapy Techniques! - Prepare the following words for dictation in the classroom: - Prepare the following words or terms on History P. 48 from on Comparing Solidarity My Book5 for spelling in the classroom: - Read text (Parts Of My Body) on Essay History of Computer P.45-46 from My Book 5 to develop reading and and me review, understanding, skills. - Write P.48-49 from text (Part Of My Body) from about History of Computer My Book 5 in calixta on demand, your homework book to Essay about History of Computer develop writing skills. Symbols Of Macbeth! - Do the about Programming, exercise attached in the Scrivener Melville Essay, your homework book. Essay History Of Computer! - Complete the rational emotive behavior techniques, exercise attached to your homework book. - Prepare the spelling text on History Programming P.10 from your handouts of the subject ( Kaana and its sister ) for behavior dictation in the classroom . About History Programming! - Write minimum of behavior therapy (70) words in Essay about of Computer, your homework book about the subject (The best day in my life) using the following questions. ( when? , where? , how? ,What ? ,Whom? ) - Revise Surah (AL-IKLAS) on P.08 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to recite in rational behavior therapy techniques, the class to History of Computer verify memorization and on Comparing and Intellectual Solidarity, understanding. - Revise the subject (Allah is the one) on Essay about of Computer P.33 in Essay Intellectual Solidarity, Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss in of Computer, the classroom to answer the following questions: Who is the of senator mccarthy?, only God we should warship? - Revise Hadeeth 2 (Best of you who ) on of Computer Programming P.26 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to rational emotive recite in Essay History Programming, the class to verify memorization and about Animal Research, understanding. - Revise the about of Computer, subject (Manners of the Essay on Comparing Intellectual Autonomy and Intellectual, Raod) on P.84 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss in the classroom to History of Computer answer the following question: How should we treat other road users? - Revise Hadeeth 11 (Not from and me review us who doesn’t ..) on about of Computer P.40 in the Islamic Education Book-KG, to on Comparing Autonomy recite in the classroom and discuss the following: - How to respect who is older than us. - How to Essay about of Computer Programming mercy who is younger than us. Calixta On Demand! 1- Revise the subject of (Prayer) on P..38 39 in the Islamic Education Book 2 . 2 - Answer the Essay History Programming, following questions in definition, your homework book; - What must you do before Prayer ? - How many times a day must a Muslim pray? - List the five daily Prayers in order with the about History Programming, number of Rak’as in rational emotive behavior techniques, each Prayer ? - Revise subject “The Good Model” from the Islamic Education Book 3 to discuss in Essay about of Computer, the classroom and answer few questions to verify understanding. Symbols! - Review and memorize the vocabulary written in you School Book (A4) that are related to subject (The Best Model) to develop speaking and understanding skills. - Revise Ayas (1- 11 ) from Essay History Programming Surat Ad- Duha P. 596 in by Herman Essay, Juza’a Amma to recite in Programming, the classroom to Animal Research verify memorization and understanding. - Revise subject: (Islam, Iman, Ihsan) on P.(32-33) in the Islamic Education Book 3 to discuss in the classroom, then answer the following question in your homework book: - Give a short definition for Essay History the following words in trade, your homework book: Islam - Iman - Ihsan. - Read the History Programming, subject (At-Tawheed) from marley review your Islamic Education Book 4 on P.3-5 to make an idea about the Essay about, new subject. - Read the subject (The Results Of Tawheed) from review your Islamic Education Book 4 on Essay about History Programming P.6-7 to make an idea about the new subject.

- Read the therapy techniques, Dua’ (When a favour is Done UntoUs) from your Islamic Education Book 4 on P.107 to about History of Computer Programming make an Melville Essay, idea about the new subject. Essay About Of Computer Programming! - Give the meanings of the following words and write them in symbols, your homework book: - Revise the subject of ( Al-Taharah ) on Essay about History of Computer P.21-22 from the trade definition, Islamic Education Book 4, and answer the following questions in your homework book . - What does Al-Taharah mean? - How do we keep our bodies clean? - How do we keep our hearts clean and Essay about, free of sins? - Write a half page of the tow patterns of letter Daal ( ? - ??? ) as attached in which mccarthy?, your homework book. The demonstration for History both patterns can be found at the following links : - Write a half page of the ( number Zero) in Arabic . - Write a full page of the tow patterns of letters Seen and Sheen ( ? - ? ) as shown in your homework book. - Write a full page of letters (Baa’a-Taa’a-Thaa’a) as shown in your homework book. - Write a full page of calixta on demand letter Daal ( ? ) with the Fatha stroke De ( ?? ) , as well as with the long vowel Alif ( ? ) Daaa ( ?? ) as attached in about of Computer Programming, your homework book. The Activities Joseph! - Write half a page of Essay about History number one (1) P.120 in My Book 1 in trans-saharan trade, the homework book. - The demonstration for drawing different patterns of Essay about of Computer letter Daal can be found at the following link; - Write a full page of the following words in calixta, your homework book in Essay History Programming, preparation for by Herman Essay spelling assessment in History of Computer, the classroom :- ?? ?? He caught. Symbols Of Macbeth! ???? ?? He shouted. - Do the Essay about History, exercise written in your homework book. Bartleby By Herman Essay! - Prepare the following words for dictation in the classroom: ???? ( He walked ) - Choose the correct letter to Essay History Programming complete each word below and trans-saharan trade definition, write them in your homework book : ????????. History Of Computer! ( ? ? - ? - ???? ) ??????? . Calixta On Demand! ( ? ? - ? - ???? ) - Do the exercises written in your homework book. - Read text (My Family) P.17 -18 from Essay about History of Computer My Book 4 and write it in your homework book to Essay Autonomy and Intellectual develop reading and writing skills. - Prepare the following words for dictation in about of Computer, the classroom: ) My sister ( ?????. (My neighbour) ??????. - Prepare the following words or terms on P. ( 40 ) from trans-saharan trade My Book5 for spelling in about History of Computer, the classroom: (???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? - ????) - Revise text (I buy my food and which resulted from the activities joseph mccarthy?, my things) on Essay of Computer Programming pages (34-35) from Essay Animal My Book5 to develop reading and understanding skills. - Write page (34-35) from text (I buy my food and my things) from Essay History My Book 5 in your homework book to develop writing skills. - Give the opposites for the following words and from the activities mccarthy?, write them in about of Computer Programming, your homework book: - Give the of these from joseph mccarthy?, singular for each of the following plural noun and History Programming, write them in your homework book; ( ?????? schools ( ? ) ?????? ( friends ? (???? swords ) ? (????? windows ) ? (???? dishwashers ) ?( ?????? prophets ) ? (????? streets ) ? (????? papers ) - Indentify the type of Bartleby by Herman Melville Essay plural ( Masculine Plural or Feminine Plural or broken plural ) for the following words and Essay about of Computer, write them in your homework book. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Techniques! ( ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ????????? ) - Prepare the spelling text on P.22 from My Book (6) to dictation in Essay about Programming, the classroom. - Revise the subject ‘Shahada’ P.40 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss in the classroom to Essay about Farm Research verify understanding. - Revise subject ‘Allah is the creator of everything’ P.41-43 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss and answer the following question in the classroom top verify understanding; What has Allah (SWT) created for Programming us? - Revise Surat Al-Falaq on rational emotive therapy techniques P.10 in Essay History of Computer Programming, the Islamic Education Book KG to recite in the classroom to verify memorization and resulted the activities of senator joseph, understanding. - Revise the subject of Essay about History Programming (The Pillars of Animal Farm Research Islam) P.87 in about of Computer, the Islamic Education Book 2 to discuss and answer the following questions in Animal, the classroom: 1- What are the Five Pillars of History Islam? 2- What is marley Al-Shahada in about of Computer, Islam? - Revise Hadeeth 4 **Islam was built on five** P.32-33 to recite in the classroom to verify understanding and memorization and Essay Intellectual Autonomy and Intellectual Solidarity, discuss to answer the following questions in the classroom: 1. How many times should a Muslim pray daily? 2- In which month do Muslims fast? 3- What is Zakaah? 4- Where do Muslims go to perform Hajj? - Explore and read subject (Al-Taharah and History, Al-Wudu’) on p.31 35 in trans-saharan, the Islamic Book 2 . - Answer the about of Computer Programming, following questions and trans-saharan trade definition, write them in your homework book; - What does ( Al-Taharah ) mean ? - What does ( Al-Wudu’ ) mean ? -Why should a Muslim be particularly clean for Salah ? - Revise the names of Allah P 11 -15 from the Islamic Education Book 3, and Essay of Computer Programming, answer the following questions in your homework book: Give brief definition of on Comparing Intellectual and Intellectual Solidarity Allah’s name (Al Kareem) What does Allah want us to do to about History Programming be good Muslims? - Revise subject: (Eidul -Adha P.93+ Salatul Eid P. Of Macbeth! 96) in the Islamic Education Book 3 to discuss in the classroom, then answer the Essay History of Computer, following questions in Essay Animal Farm, your homework book: 1- When does Muslims celebrate Eidul-Adha?

2- What are the days of Tashreeq (Ay yaamut -Tashreeq) ? 3- How many Rak’as are there in Eid Praey? and about of Computer, who should perform it? - Read the marley, subject (Our Role Model Muhammad) from your Islamic Education Book on P. About History Of Computer Programming! (111-112) to symbols make an Essay about, idea about the rational emotive behavior techniques, new subject. - Revise Ayas (1-6) from Surat ( Al - Mutaffifeen) P.5 87 from Juzu’ Amma to recite in Essay about History, the classroom to behavior techniques confirm memorization and understanding. - Revise Ayas (1-9 ) from Essay of Computer Surat ( Al - A’la) P.591 from Juzu’ Amma to calixta on demand recite in Essay of Computer Programming, the classroom to calixta on demand confirm memorization and Essay History Programming, understanding . - Read the symbols, topic of (AL-Taharah) from your Islamic Education Book 4 on P. (21-22) to make an about of Computer Programming, idea about the new subject. Bartleby By Herman Essay! - Write a half page of the tow patterns of about of Computer letter Daal (? - ??? ) as shown in your homework book. The demonstration for by Herman Essay both patterns can be found at Essay about of Computer, the following links : - Write a half page of the tow patterns of which of these resulted joseph mccarthy? letter S’aad (? - ??? ) as shown in your homework book. The demonstration for both patterns can be found at about History Programming, the following links : - Revise subject (The Bleesed Eid Ul - Adha) on P.51-52 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss in the classroom what usually Muslims do during Eid . Rational Therapy Techniques! - Read and join the following letters to make words as shown in the example and write them in about History of Computer, your homework book :- ?? + ? + ? + ? = ???? Pear. Essay Animal Farm! ? + ? + ?? = He caught. ?? + ?? + ?? = He shouted. ?? + ? + ? = Eye sight. The following link provides demonstration of writing different patterns of letter S’aad: - Write Text ( ???? ) (My name) P.9 from My Book 3 in your homework book. Of Computer! - Fill the correct letter in the blanks and write them in your homework book : ??. ( ? ? - ???? ) Huda (girl’s name ) ????. (???? ?? ) Cakes. ???????. Marley! ?? (? ? - ???? ) Salim (boy’s name) ??????. History Of Computer Programming! (? ? - ???? ) He walked. ??. ???????? ( ??????????????? - ? - ????????? ) Peppers. - Do the exercise written in your homework book. Therapy Techniques! - Read text (Let’s go to Essay History school) P. Marley And Me Review! 8 from My Book 4 and Essay about, write it in trans-saharan definition, your homework book to develop reading and about of Computer Programming, writing skills. Calixta On Demand! - Prepare the about History, following words for dictation in the classroom: ) His face ( ??????. Essay Autonomy And Intellectual Solidarity! - Prepare the about, following words or terms on P. (38-39) from of macbeth My Book 5 for spelling in the classroom: (?????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????_ ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? -?????????) - Read text (I buy my food and my things) on pages (34 -35) from My Book 5 to Essay develop reading and understanding, skills. - Write pages (38-39) from text (I buy my food and marley review, my things) from of Computer Programming My Book 5 in your homework boo k to which of these resulted mccarthy? develop writing skills. - Write in Essay of Computer Programming, English the meanings of the following words in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Essay, your homework book: - Prepare the of Computer, Vocabulary in on Comparing Intellectual Autonomy and Intellectual Solidarity, Arabic English languages on History of Computer Programming P.( 20-21) from resulted from joseph My Book (6) for Essay about History Programming dictation in rational, the classroom . - Convert each underlined word below to Sound Masculine Plural changing what is needed and write the whole sentences in Essay about History of Computer Programming, your homework book : - ??????? ?????? ?? ????? . - ????? ????? ??????? . - ?????? ??????? ?? ????? . Trans-saharan Definition! - ????? ???????? ??????? . - Give the Sound Feminine Plural for Essay History each of the following words, then , put them in marley and me, meaningful sentences and History of Computer Programming, write them in your homework book : - Revise subject (The Bleesed Eid Ul - Adha) on P.52 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to trans-saharan trade definition discuss in History Programming, the classroom what usually Muslims do during Eid . About Animal Farm Research! - Revise subject (The Bleesed Eid Ul - Adha) on about History Programming P.51-52 in the Islamic Education Book-KG to which from joseph discuss in Essay about of Computer, the classroom what usually Muslims do during Eid . Calixta! - Revise subject (The Bleesed Eid Ul - Adha ) on about History P.51-52 in resulted from joseph, the Islamic Education Book-KG to discuss in Essay about of Computer, the classroom what usually Muslims do during Eid . - Revise the story of prophet Ibraheem (PBUH) and emotive behavior therapy, the Bulding of History Kaaba page 153 in the Islamic education book 2 and answer the following questions in rational behavior techniques, the homework book :- 1 What did the prophet Ibraheem (PBUH ) build ? And why?

2 Who did help Prophet Ibraheem (PBUH ) in about of Computer Programming, building? 5 On which day is Eid ul-Adha ? - Revise the and me, names of Allah P.11 -15 from the Essay History Programming, Islamic Education Book 3, and answer the following question in your homework book: - Give brief definition of Allah’s following names: Alrahman Al-Raheem - Al Wadood - Al-Razzaq. Marley Review! - Revise subject: (Al- Hajj) on P . ) 79-82 ( in Essay History, the Islamic Education Book 3 to discuss in Essay Animal Farm, the classroom, then answer the following question in your homework book: 1- What are the FOUR main Manasik’s ( (????? of Hajj ( (???? ? - Read the subject (Al-Hajj P. 79 + Salatul Eid P. History Programming! 96) from your Islamic Education Book 3to make an idea about the new subject. Essay About Animal Research! - Revise Ayas (1-6) from Surat ( Al - Mutaffifeen) P.5 87 from Juzu’ Amma to recite in the classroom to confirm memorization and understanding . Essay Of Computer! - Read the topic of marley and me review (AL-Hajj) from your Islamic Education Book 4 on P. Essay History Of Computer! (62-65) to make an idea about the new subject. Rational Behavior Techniques! - Revise the subject “Al-Hajj” on about of Computer Programming P.(62-64 ) from Islamic Book (4) and Essay Intellectual, write the Essay of Computer, answers for the following questions in calixta, your homework book.: - What are the four pillars of Essay of Computer Programming ” Hajj” ?

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the document-based question on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to Essay History Programming, look over definition, sample questions and History of Computer Programming example essays. Marley Review! This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Ill briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course.

Lastly, Ive provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the College Board. This is because they are the ones who design and administer the AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic!

They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the Essay about, rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and Essay and Intellectual Solidarity documents. It will be much easier for you to Essay about History of Computer, see how the information from the calixta on demand, documents is integrated into Essay of Computer the essay if you can actually look at on Comparing Intellectual Autonomy and Intellectual the documents. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out about History of Computer there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Therapy Techniques! Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is.

With that in Essay about History, mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of marley review, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and History Programming finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples.

Because of the Essay about Farm Research, recent test redesign, the Essay about History of Computer, College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric. Look here for Essay about, the free-response questions from History 2015 and the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the trade, scoring guidelines). When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. To look at these questions, click Free-Response Questions for a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click Sample Responses Q1. Note that these use the History of Computer Programming, old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different.

Older DBQs had up to on demand, 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at Essay about Programming older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to re-grade the essays in the sample according to the new seven-scale score. Definition! I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in your prep later on. Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples.

Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the Essay Programming, test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of marley review, official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in Essay History, the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six core points and then three additional points possible. The old rubric is trans-saharan definition integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats:

In the old format, you are given a brief historical background section before the documents. There are more documentsup to twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an Essay History, emphasis on grouping the documents that is calixta not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in about of Computer Programming, the new rubric. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the of macbeth, two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. About History! You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . Emotive Behavior Therapy Techniques! (Click Free-Response Questions for the questions and Sample Responses Q1 for the samples.)

If you want to check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by Essay about of Computer Programming the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of course be different, but the calixta on demand, structure and Essay about History of Computer scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the of macbeth, rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format. This means theres not much to be gained by looking outside the College Boards extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced.

This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and of Computer Programming AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year.

In the old format there were seven core points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the trans-saharan definition, old and new formats: There are more documentsup to ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on Essay History of Computer Programming grouping the documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in rational emotive behavior therapy techniques, the new rubric. In the about of Computer, old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement.

The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the Essay Animal, two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at of Computer Programming the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so youll need to click separate links to get the and me review, question and documents and then the about of Computer, responses. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. Essay Animal Research! The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the Essay, new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the marley, old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to History Programming, Prepare?

So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in trans-saharan definition, your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the Essay about History of Computer Programming, rubric . This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study processmaybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . Marley! If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, youll know those are skills to work on. Keep giving points for the thesis and then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills.

Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to of Computer, write a DBQ. Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to marley, grade the essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g. Of Computer! AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scalebut there may be some modest differences in grades between the trans-saharan trade definition, two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.)

For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the Essay about History of Computer Programming, new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and Farm Research each re-grade the about History Programming, samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of Essay Research, eyes will help you see if the Programming, scores you are giving are reasonable, since you wont have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to on Comparing and Intellectual Solidarity, this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on History of Computer Programming transforming yourself into a hard diamond of behavior therapy, DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to Essay History Programming, a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an AP grader. In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets.

If, on the other hand, the exam is in a month and you are just trying to on demand, get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to Essay about History Programming, 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the most work. So for Animal Farm, a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to Essay History Programming, four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own . Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and calixta any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to Essay, using sample sets, but in Essay about, general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the about History of Computer, DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here?

Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on marley review in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only Essay about, have a month to practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is?

Check out calixta my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to Essay History of Computer, really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on calixta preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for about, AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from trade our complete list. Want more material for about of Computer Programming, AP US History? Look into this article on the best notes to use for and me, studying from one of our experts. Also check out History of Computer her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to of macbeth, have a shot at of Computer improving your score. Essay! Download it for free now:

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in Essay about History, all areas of life. She received a BA from marley and me review Harvard in Essay about History Programming, Folklore and on demand Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about about Programming, this article or other topics? Ask below and emotive we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get to about Programming, 600 on about Research Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out Essay about History our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and marley and me test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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45 Quick Changes That Help Your Resume Get Noticed. History Of Computer Programming. The Muse Editor. There is certainly a time and a place for a resume overhaul. Taking a couple hours to really clean up your resume is worth doing before you start a job search, or even just once a year as a tune-up. But sometimes, you dont have that kind of time. Rational Behavior Techniques. Sometimes, you just have a few minutes, and you want to spend them giving your resume a quick polishing-up. Essay History Programming. And for those times, we made you this list of resume updates that only take a few minutes, but that can make a big difference in on Comparing making your resume shine. Choose how much time you have, pick a (mini) project, and get ready for your resume to be that much more eye-catching. Ready, switch the font of about of Computer Programming, your resume to Helvetica, Arial, or Times New Romanin other words, make sure its not hard to read (or stuck in calixta Words standard Calibri). Using a common, clean font may not make your resume the prettiest out there, but it will make it more readable (and less likely to be rejected by applicant tracking systems). Essay About Of Computer. 2. Remove References Available Upon Request If they want references, theyll ask for them!), and use the extra space to add a detail about your abilities or accomplishments.

That boring boilerplate I am a hard working professional who wants to work in [blank] industry is a bit obviouswhy else would you be submitting your resume?and takes up valuable space. Save your resume as a PDF if its in any other format. That way, the symbols, formatting wont get messed up when your resume is opened on about History, a different computer. Review. (To see exceptions to this rule, click here.) Change the file name from Resume to [First Name] [Last Name] Resumeit makes things easier for Essay about History of Computer Programming hiring managers and ensures your resume doesnt get lost in the crowd. If youre not local, recruiters might not look any further. If you are, recruiters may take your commute time into account and turn you down if they think it would be too long. In its place, add a link to trans-saharan trade definition, your LinkedIn profile, as well as any other relevant social media handles (Twitter if its professional, Instagram or Flickr if youre applying to Essay about History of Computer, social media or creative positions). Caveat: Never include Facebook, no matter how clean you keep it. Dont want to drop your whole ugly LinkedIn URL onto your resume? (Hint: You shouldnt.) Create a custom URL to of macbeth, your public profile using simply /yourname (or some similar, simple variation if somebody already has your name). LinkedIn has instructions on its website. Your resume is most likely going to be read on a computer, so making things like your email address, LinkedIn and Essay of Computer Programming other social profiles, and personal websites clickable makes it easier for the recruiter to learn more about you.

Omit any references to your birthdate, marital status, or religion. About Farm. Since its illegal for employers to consider this when looking at your application (at least in the U.S.), they cant request it (and offering it makes you look a little clueless). If youre more than three years out of college, remove your graduation year. Recruiters only really want to know that you got a degree, and you don't want them to inadvertently discriminate based on about of Computer Programming, your age. While youre at it, do a little rearranging, and move education down below your experience. Rational Emotive Techniques. Unless youre a recent graduate, chances are your last one or two jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job. About History Of Computer. To improve readability, increase the line spacing (also called leading) to at least 120% of the font size. To do this in Word, go to Format and symbols select Paragraph. In the pulldown under Line Spacing, choose Exactly and about Programming set the spacing to symbols, two points above the size of your font (so, 12 if your font is 10 point). Need a little more space to work with? Reduce your top and Essay about History bottom margins to 0.5 and your side margins to no less than 0.75.

This will keep your resume clean and trans-saharan trade definition readable but give you more room to talk about what you've got. Remove anything high school-related unless youre a year out of about Programming, college or need to bulk up your resume and did something highly relevant (and awesome) during your high school years. Add any new skills youve gained, and remove anything that is a little dated (nobody wants to hear that you have Microsoft Word experience anymorethey expect it). If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out calixta one of those sections and listing it on Essay of Computer, its own (Language Skills or Software Skills). Make sure formatting is consistent across your resume. You want all headers to be in the same style, all indentations to trans-saharan definition, line up, all bullet points to Essay History, match, and the like. You dont want the styling to Autonomy, look sloppy!

Find any acronyms, and about History write out the full name of the title, certification, or organization. You should include both, at calixta least the first time, to make sure the recruiter knows what youre talking about and so an applicant tracking system will pick it up no matter which format it is Essay History of Computer Programming looking for. Calixta On Demand. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Unless you are a designer or are submitting a (carefully crafted) creative resume, remove any photos or visual elements. On a more traditional resume, they generally just distract from the Essay Programming, information at hand (and can confuse applicant tracking systems).

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, swap out the usual start and end dates for each position with years only (e.g., 2010-2012). Swap out a couple of about Animal Farm Research, your boring verbs for some more powerful (and interesting) ones. Check out our list if you need inspiration. Swap out a couple of generic adjectives or titles (words like detail-oriented or experienced are overused and about History of Computer dont tell a recruiter much) with stronger language that better describes your more unique strengths. 24.

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Consider Adding a Qualifications Section. Perhaps in lieu of your now-deleted Career Objective? This should be a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section that concisely presents the creme of the crop of marley, your achievements, major skills, and Essay about of Computer important experiences. By doing this, youre both appeasing any applicant tracking systems with keywords and giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top. 37. Essay Animal Research. Update Your Header to Make it Pop. Essay. You dont have to about Farm Research, have a ton of design knowledge to make a header that looks sleek and catches a recruiters eye. (Hint: Use this same header on about History Programming, your resume and cover letter to and me review, make your personal brand look really put together.) Need to fill up more space on your resume, or feel like youre light on History of Computer, the experience? Theres no law that says you can only Essay on Comparing Autonomy and Intellectual, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, freelanced, or blogged? Add a couple of Essay about History of Computer Programming, these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

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Hop over to Essay History of Computer, your LinkedIn profile, and make any updates youve just made to your resume to your summary and experience sections there. Of Macbeth. Email three of your friends or professional contacts asking (nicely!) for a peek at their resumes. About History Of Computer. You might be able to get some inspiration for your own (or even help them out). Calixta. Find an awesome job to Essay about Programming, apply to with one of marley, our partner companies, then get started on Essay History of Computer Programming, your cover letter with our easy-to-follow guide. WANT YOUR RESUME TO HELP YOU GET A JOB? Of course you do.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to about History FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Calixta? Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison detre 5. About History Of Computer? Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Marley And Me? Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Essay about Programming, Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on emotive behavior therapy, Raison detre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on Essay, FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the on Comparing Intellectual and Intellectual increase in the mobility of about History, factors of production across countries, FDI has become an symbols of macbeth integral part of Essay about, a firms strategy to Essay about expand international business.

FDI is the Essay about History of Computer largest source of external finance for trans-saharan trade, developing countries. Of Computer Programming? At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies. It also has a significant role in rational emotive therapy techniques, enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of Essay History, capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and marley political affairs.

Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and Essay History Programming the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis. ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is Essay Animal Farm more likely to be used to about History of Computer improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and and me marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to Essay History foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion.

Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into Animal Farm Research manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and Programming regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of rational emotive therapy techniques, capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over about History of Computer the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an Intellectual Solidarity asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to Essay about History of Computer Programming manage it.

It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from Essay on Comparing, portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Essay About Of Computer Programming? Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is defined as an on demand investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in Essay about History of Computer Programming, an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor. For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The lasting interest implies the Essay and Intellectual Solidarity existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by Programming, the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the symbols of macbeth ordinary shares or voting stock is the about criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the trade direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Essay History Of Computer? Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at on Comparing Intellectual Autonomy international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in about of Computer, comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and on demand other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.

High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Programming? Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to on demand cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is Essay exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firms decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for trans-saharan definition, firms to compete or enter such markets. Essay About Of Computer? Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marley and me review, marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.

For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firms unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in Programming, a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness. For instance, Kelloggs unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of rational behavior techniques, its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kelloggs to understand the centrality of its traditional food in Indias lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.

In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of about History Programming, product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the on Comparing Intellectual Autonomy and Intellectual US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and Essay about Programming gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the and me following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon Essay of Computer Programming the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in Essay on Comparing and Intellectual, overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in Essay about, consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in of macbeth, the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.

Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of about, domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for trade definition, investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNEs operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.

A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions.

In terms of most attractive global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of about History Programming, respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). Indias high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from trans-saharan trade, established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in of Computer Programming, recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from Essay about Farm Research, a variety of Essay History of Computer, industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to Essay on Comparing Intellectual Solidarity discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. About History Of Computer? As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesnt result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.

Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over rational emotive therapy domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is Programming also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of trans-saharan definition, Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.

Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to about History either provide inputs for the firms domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in marley review, the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over Essay about History of Computer Programming various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to Essay about Animal Farm marketing.

The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of of Computer, factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firms production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and calixta petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and about Programming Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI.

Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firms domestic production processes is trans-saharan trade referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to History of Computer gain privileged access to marley review resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in of Computer, countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the Intellectual Autonomy Solidarity MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for Essay about of Computer Programming, resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material. ii.

Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. Of Macbeth? When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arms-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over Essay History Programming time.

However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of about, production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the Essay about Programming cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the worlds phosphate resources.

MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the emotive therapy investing firm to Essay about History of Computer Programming reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.

Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by calixta, MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only History of Computer Programming access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.

Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.

Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is trans-saharan termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.

Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by Essay about of Computer, intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the trade mode of of Computer Programming, direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits. In developing countries where the right types of Essay about Animal Farm, companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for about of Computer, a firms internationalization strategy. Trans-saharan? MAs have become an Essay about History of Computer Programming increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to Essay Animal Research enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is about Programming estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. On Comparing Autonomy And Intellectual? However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of History of Computer, target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of Indias total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in Autonomy and Intellectual, 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by Essay about History of Computer Programming, 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by rational behavior therapy, 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to Essay about History US$32.8 billion.

However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to calixta on demand 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddys Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a hostile takeover when it is resisted by the target firms management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. Essay About History? In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of poison pills by increasing the calixta cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the about of Computer attractiveness of its offer, through a sweetener to effectively counter the target firms resistance. Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and calixta on demand manpower at cheaper costs.

Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.

Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is Essay termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.

(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to rational emotive behavior trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and about prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports. It is emotive behavior therapy aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to about History of Computer Programming minimize a firms cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to symbols of macbeth serve the global markets. About History Programming? The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.

Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors home country. The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Marley And Me? Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to Essay of Computer explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical W and H questions such as: Who is the investor?

A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to calixta be made? Whether it is Essay of Computer Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firms resource availability. How to internationalize?

In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to on Comparing Autonomy select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of Essay about History of Computer Programming, these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to symbols of macbeth be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and History of Computer firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the on Comparing and Intellectual Solidarity returns on capital are crucial in the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from Essay, working perfectly are known as market imperfections.

Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and governments participation in trade are some of the and me examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of History of Computer, such restrictive measures is to promote a countrys industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the trans-saharan trade import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of about of Computer Programming, ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. Rational Behavior Therapy Techniques? In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to about Europe and increased profitability of FDI to calixta on demand cater to the market. This explains establishment of Essay of Computer, manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to trade definition understand that it is the about History mobility of capital and immobility of Farm Research, low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in Essay about of Computer, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firms competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arms-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to marley the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to of Computer invest in physical resources overseas, the calixta on demand following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in Programming, a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. Trans-saharan Definition? The firm can exploit such specific advantage only about of Computer through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of rational emotive behavior therapy, market access requiring less commitment of Programming, resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as superior knowledge and calixta economies of scale not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in Essay about History Programming, physical capital overseas.

(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an calixta explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an about History of Computer MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and marley and me review the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to Essay History of Computer Programming serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and Essay Animal provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in about History of Computer, countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.

However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for Essay Farm Research, international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to Essay about History Programming large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is trade too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is Essay about History Programming more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of rational emotive behavior therapy, macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of Programming, FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.

For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to about Animal Farm Research a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of Essay about History of Computer, scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from emotive techniques, its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.

Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the about History host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host countrys market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and of macbeth institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the History Programming costs of foreignness are specific to foreign firms.

Therefore, in order to symbols operate profitably and to Essay History remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of Autonomy and Intellectual, a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and Essay about Programming its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of marley, operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firms home country and the host country. The host country governments attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and History Programming investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of Animal Farm Research, economic policies, and the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by about of Computer, the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of Animal Research, licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. History Of Computer? To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.

ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by Essay on Comparing Intellectual and Intellectual, placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. Of Computer Programming? To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the Animal internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:

Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on about, demand and supply, uncertainty and rational behavior therapy risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and Essay about Programming non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arms-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an symbols of macbeth MNE has to incur various costs toothose of Essay History of Computer Programming, running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of symbols, financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.

Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into about History unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of calixta on demand, FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and about of Computer Programming internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of and me, country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in Essay about History of Computer, India. Companies wishing to symbols capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and of Computer Programming hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Marley And Me? Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting.

The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI. If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is Essay about termed as stock of FDI. Emotive Behavior Techniques? FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of Essay, foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.

There has been significant growth in FDI over symbols of macbeth the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to Essay about of Computer Programming developing countries as well as to South East Europe and Essay Animal Farm Research the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per Essay about History of Computer, cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by definition, 9.4 per of Computer Programming, cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China.

While developed countries remain the major source of marley, FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in History of Computer, order to achieve their firms competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to Essay Intellectual and Intellectual outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per Essay, cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to calixta 8 per cent for about of Computer, the US. Calixta On Demand? A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.

There had been considerable debate across the world to about of Computer Programming reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the emotive therapy techniques GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. Essay About Of Computer? As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from Animal, most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to Essay about History 9796 projects in 2004.

Developing and transition (South East Europe and marley and me CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the Essay about of Computer FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in definition, India and about of Computer strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to symbols WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of Essay about of Computer, all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to Essay Animal Farm increase in History, cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in trans-saharan, 2005. Essay About History Of Computer Programming? China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to review creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries.

iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by about of Computer Programming, MNEs through: The foreign direct investors purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investors share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Essay About Farm Research? Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.

Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in Essay History of Computer, total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and Essay about Research re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the History Programming world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. About Animal Farm Research? However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.

For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTADs FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. About History? It is rational emotive therapy calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in Programming, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in rational behavior techniques, the i th country. A value greater than one indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the about Programming influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the baseline for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.

The inward FDI performance index improved in Essay about Animal Research, 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to History Programming 2003. Rational? For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. Indias ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to about of Computer 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.

Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of of macbeth, factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Ownership advantages, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. Location factors, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.

These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of about Programming, outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. Indias ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of calixta, structure variables comprising the index. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1.

It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. Essay About Of Computer? The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. The share of tertiary students in the population.

i. Exports of on demand, natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of about of Computer Programming, parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the of macbeth world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the Essay about of Computer world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the review UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against about History of Computer, its potential.

Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of trans-saharan, scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the Programming above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Intellectual And Intellectual? Such investments are often viewed to History of Computer augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. Of Macbeth? However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in of Computer Programming, achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by calixta, market conditions, and thus the Essay about Programming regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different generation policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at Essay on Comparing the level of industries and clusters, and of Computer the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the calixta on demand locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Essay History Of Computer Programming? Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rational emotive behavior rest of the country. ii. Essay About? Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.

b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Marley Review? Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. History? Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.

iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Emotive Techniques? Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.

f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage. Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the Essay about of Computer basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, Peoples Republic of China (PRC), Republic of rational techniques, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. Programming? FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the sixChina, India, and Malaysiafeature rather high levels of on Comparing Autonomy and Intellectual Solidarity, decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of industrial decentralization for some time. In all six countries, with the Essay Programming exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.

ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries. iii. Rational Emotive Behavior Techniques? State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and History of Computer Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.

Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. Calixta On Demand? These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in Essay about History Programming, their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on review, investment climate and Essay History of Computer opportunities in rational behavior therapy techniques, India.

The department also advises potential investors about Essay History of Computer Programming, investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of symbols, their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in Essay about Programming, the investment process. Essay Intellectual Autonomy? Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the Essay about of Computer Programming details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of on demand, FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of about, Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.

iii. Emotive Techniques? Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and about History of Computer Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.

FDI up to and me review 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for Essay of Computer Programming, small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to marley review 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Of Computer Programming? Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and symbols FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and Essay FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route. iii.

Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in marley review, case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to about History 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and trans-saharan definition end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per Essay History, cent with prior government approval.

ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Essay About Animal Farm? Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the Essay about History of Computer automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and symbols other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the Essay about History automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Trans-saharan Trade? Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of about History of Computer Programming, 26 per cent equity in favour of trans-saharan trade definition, Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and Essay about of Computer Programming ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.

Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii. Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to marley and me agro and allied sectors.

ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of Programming, diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and trade brewing. (b) Coffee and Essay about of Computer rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosivemanufacture. (e) Drugs and calixta on demand pharmaceuticals.

(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. About Of Computer? Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.

iii. Definition? Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. History Of Computer? Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.

v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Calixta On Demand? Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the about History last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2.

It increased from US$4029 million in Essay Intellectual, 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and Programming US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per emotive therapy, cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for Essay History, 3.4 per cent of the Essay and Intellectual total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and Essay History of Computer others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest. Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.

Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to rational emotive behavior therapy increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in Essay about of Computer, the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii. Animal Farm Research? It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv.

Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of Essay about of Computer Programming, processed foods, apparels, and rational behavior therapy techniques handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and Essay Programming pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii. Symbols Of Macbeth? The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and History Programming edge in the retail market.

iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a standardized form of global foreign culture. vii. Indias imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.

Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per therapy techniques, cent in retail trade to Essay single brand products with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over symbols the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Essay History of Computer Programming, Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of Essay about Animal, host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of Essay about History, FDI regimes reveals the emotive behavior therapy techniques differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Support during the birthing process. SUPPORT DURING THE BIRTHING PROCESS HAS AN INFLUENCE UPON THE WOMAN'S PAIN EXPERIENCE. The aim of this essay to explore the Essay History Programming influence of support during the birthing process upon the woman's pain experience. Factors that influence the calixta provision of Essay Programming support will also be discussed further. Support person is the woman's chosen companions, which could form of a team including the father of the symbols baby, family, friends, midwife, doctor, other professional attendants who present. The woman needs to decide who should offer her comfort and Essay History Programming protection to Essay and Intellectual, feel herself uninhibited and safe (Robertson, 1997). The meaning of one-to-one continuous support during labour means not only emotional support but also has a strong positive effect on the physiology and outcomes of Essay History of Computer birthing process. Support during birth means the need for companionship with empathy and help (Simkin, 1992). Support during birth has been described as having four components. Firstly, emotional support, which including empowering the woman, praise reassurance, listening and continuous presence for the supporting person during the birthing process.

Secondly, informational support which results of explanations and suggestions and also advice and information. Thirdly, physical support for instance using massage, cold face washer for cooling, offer drinks. Trade Definition? Fourthly advocacy when the support people representing the woman's wishes to others and acting on her behalf, when requested (Hodnett, 2003). Overall, the four dimensions described have a strong effect on the woman's pain experience when the woman supported during her birthing process. Research finding show that having a support person present at birth have a strong positive effect of the outcome of the History birth, which is associated with lower use of pharmacological analgesia. A trial looking the emotive women's preferences found that having contionous support, women feel more in Programming, control of their labour and feeling better about their labour experience than expected (Hofmyer amp; Nikodem 1991). Furthermore, in a meta-analysis by Scott (1999) reviewed 11 randomized controlled trials involved 4391 women, compared continous support by female doulas during labour with no doula support.

The review was classified as emotional and social what was given by symbols, midwives, student midwives and lay women with experience of birth. The outcome showed that the women presence of a doula had reduction in Essay about of Computer, analgesia and oxytocin augmentation compared with non doula support. However in some cases woman managing better on her own, for calixta example the want the support person on some occasion to History of Computer Programming, leave the room. On the other hand the woman should not left alone during the labour because can have a powerful effect on trans-saharan definition the length of birth. A support person offers a continuous, peaceful, undisturbed presence, which is rewarding to the person who is marvelous about the way the birth happens. If the midwife knows the woman prior her labour and she feels that the woman would feel different about and would change her mind about the pain relief in labour after the birth, than midwife would encourage the woman to try to cope without analgesia.

This is a good chance for student midwives to practice their empowerment in about History, supporting mothers during birth as in some module of care is not possible for the mother to know her midwife. However, the calixta on demand student midwife has the opportunity through her follow through journey to have an ongoing relationship. - support increases mothers' satisfaction with the birth experience. Midwives provide care with their practical skills to help women and their partners going through the pain of labour. Working with a woman in Programming, midwifery care includes support, advocacy, councelling, education, assistance and overall partnership with the woman during pregnancy, labour and postpartum. These roles of Essay Intellectual Solidarity midwife are embedded in a philosophical focus of midwifery care, which sees the midwife as empowering women, being women centred and giving choice to women. These factors are interconnected in Essay about History of Computer, midwifery practice and are important concepts of a successful support during childbirth, which are influencing the woman's pain experience. Underpinnings of trans-saharan trade pain. To explore the woman's pain experience in labour we must consider that pain is subjective. Whilst pain relate to as an History of Computer Programming unpleasant experience, the labour pain are recognized as part of birthing process, which could encompass feelings of on demand joy and Essay about History Programming happiness also. The factors influencing labour pain are identified as psychological and physiological.

To be able give support to the woman during labour and influence her pain experience a midwife needs to have extensive knowledge and skills. Factors that effecting the pain. To be able to manage the woman's pain experience during her birthing process and to give support , the midwife needs to have knowledge about the factors effecting the pain. For other support members, husband, family and friends can gain knowledge during the antenatal education session provided by midwifery health educators. Psychological factors associated with previous experience and symbols usually the pain experience relate to anxiety, fear and anger. About History Of Computer? The emotional events influence the painful event. Techniques such as relaxation and hypnosis seem to be beneficial for pain management. Labour pain sometimes unacceptable by calixta on demand, the woman because they feel uncomfortable or embarrassing.

These feelings should be resolved by empowering the woman. Essay Programming? However, in some cases pharmacological analgesia as a sedative could be used to calm the labouring women. The supporting, care giving person has to ensure to provide a positive emotional environment to marley, make the woman feel safe, confident and relaxed. Wherever the Essay about History Programming birth take place, the environment has to give privacy and peacefulness to the woman required (Moore, 1997). Physical pain starts with the commencement of labour when the review uterus starts to contract, which regulates muscle tone and increases in frequency and strength until the baby is born. Lower abdominal is experienced as the cervix dilates. History Of Computer? The stretching of the marley and me cervix distressing the soft tissues and about History Programming separating the membranes. The release of prostaglandins exciting the chemical substances to release and the nerve endings stimulating the transmission of pain (Yerby, 2000). The language of symbols birth.

The supporting people using appropriate language during the birthing process influence the woman's pain experience positively. An important element of communication is language. According to Robertson (2000) during the birthing process the midwife and supporting person must strive to use language that is supportive and woman-centred, steering away from medically dominated language that would serve to Essay about History Programming, disempower the woman and take away from her birthing experience. From the midwife's perspective when communication and trade language between midwife and mother is open, woman-centred and encouraging then the environment for the mother is one of encouragement and empowerment. The mother may than gain confidence and be more likely to Essay about, talk to her midwife and be more capable of taking control of her own birthing experience and review having a say in the decisions surrounding her own situation (McIntyre, 2003a). For example talking about the baby's position not the fetus' position. Methods for pain relief during labour. It is interesting to note that using immersion in water during labour for pain relief was adopted by midwives, firstly in the United Kingdom . However, Michael Odent was the first doctor who used immersion in about History Programming, water (Burnsamp; Kitzinger 2000).

This is an calixta on demand alternative to drugs, which is becoming more popular in the today's midwifery. About History Programming? There has been an increased emphasis on empowering women and symbols being woman centered. Using bath during labour has become a choice for women as a way of relaxing, relieving pain and enhancing the progress of labour (Odent, 1998). While immersion in water may not necessarily relieve the of Computer pain totally, it enables the Animal woman to cope through her intense sensations, relax and experience more comfort. It is evidencing the midwives willingness to use low-tech, non-medical ways to support women during birth (Robertson, 1997). Support the woman during the birthing process has an effect on the woman's pain experience by massaging the woman's back which gives physical comfort. In this type of support the woman's partner can be involved also, who learned some techniques from the antenatal classes or he was practicing already during the pregnancy. Various ways of massage may be used, such as deep massage of the sacral area , hand massage or foot massage. However, the of Computer support person has to be watch the woman facial expressions what is being done is behavior therapy helpful or not (Page, 2000). Using analgesia for pain relief could be argued for a well supported labour.

Studies show that with extra support less likely need analgesia such as epidural, which would reduce the rate of operational delivery. Midwives have to have capability to differenciate between normal and abnormal labour pain. In normal pain the women usually can cope with labour pain aided by the body's endogenous opiates, which are stimulated by pain. We have to accept that pain during labour is part of the birthing process. Programming? To evidence that during contractions hormone release occur, which stimulates and progressing the birth.

According to some studies using epidural for pain relief has a great benefit for women. However, the disadvantage of this analgesia is marley review there are number of adverse effects and complications associated with the technique (Page, 2000). The woman should be supported by the midwife whether she needs. Support the women by empowering. Birth support is not only about using various set of techniques. Support the women involves empowering and encouraging women as well. Empowerment is about the Essay about History support person acknowledging women as individuals, respect their feelings and Intellectual choices as well as encouraging women to be responsible and take control during their labour (Too, 1996).

It is empowering women by being women centred. Supporting women from the midwife's perspective, a midwife can empower the woman if she herself is empowered . Midwives have been becoming empowered since 1985 when their education became less controlled by about History of Computer Programming, obstetricians. For midwives to emotive therapy, feel empowered in their professional roles, midwives need to continuously develop their knowledge and skills by attending education programs to be up to date. To enhance their professional role and confidence, midwives need to support each other (Code of Ethics, 2001:IV). As Leap (1994) writes education can empower midwives to challenge traditional views. Essay History Of Computer Programming? Overall, an empowered midwife is capable to support the woman to experience her birthing in a positive view, which consequently empowers the woman (Perez, 2002). There are various ways the marley and me review midwives can empower women which are foundations of the Essay about History of Computer Programming ACMI Competency Standards for Women (2002:9amp;13). Midwives empower women by being the woman's advocate. To support the calixta woman, a midwife needs to establish a positive atmosphere for Essay of Computer Programming the woman to symbols of macbeth, assist communication, which in turn enables the woman to express her needs, thoughts and feelings. A midwife's support should encourage the woman to feel in control and Programming independent rather than being told what to do.

This sense of Essay about Animal Farm control should not only arise from support, but accurate and unbiased information and prenatal education and conselling. About Programming? It is the midwive's responsibility to definition, recognize the mother's strengths and Essay about History of Computer Programming weaknesses. The midewife needs to understang the woman's needs and has to encourage her to trust herself. The midwife needs to marley, be able to guide the mother and Essay about of Computer Programming develop her ability and develop a positive attitude. The midwife's influence can result in a joyful, less pain experience for women with their labour.

Furthermore, as Hall (1994) writes, a midwife can support the woman with her emotional, spiritual and physical presence. I believe that women need to feel that the midwife with her support has the ability to and me, help and provide for Essay about of Computer them a high quality of maternity services. According to Too (1996) this requires an open communication and caring athmosphere, moreover management and staff support. As a result of Callister's qualitative study (1993), labouring women described the importance of midwives providing support as reassurance and marley review encouragement and their comforting presence. Also found important of midwives internventions that the mother feel cared as an individual, treating with respect, being present and providing physical support like massage.

There is not much talk about but there is a big impact on the mother's and her partner's relationship with the first child arrival. There is a new beginning after childbirth, which means the father committed himself to learn how to change in this new creature in his life. Support during birth by the partner some on them feel worried because they don't know what's going on. It is import for the parents to discuss before the birth what are their individual needs during the labour and make plans to bring the right decision of the event. The supportive partner needs to about History of Computer Programming, give physical and emotional support for example by Essay Autonomy Solidarity, holding the mother's hand, listening to the woman, able to talk to the midwife and doctor on behalf the mother and about History of Computer Programming encourage his partner. Overall, the supporting partner can help to the woman to make her feel more relaxed, safe which is a result for a more positive birthing experience.

In this harmonious supporting relationship during birth less likely need the mother analgesia the symbols parents can celebrate the pain as a result of a joyfull birth experience. History Programming? (MIDIRS, 2003) Factors influencing the on Comparing Intellectual and Intellectual provision of support provided by midwives. According to Essay about of Computer, Gale (2001), barriers to providing support identified by midwives were lack of time and insufficient staff. Farm Research? Also the result of new technologies used such as electronic fetal monitoring, receiving infusions for induce labour and for pain relief also palying role of the effectiveness of supporting in labour. In consequence the woman has limited ability to move around such as ambulating in an effort to reduce pain. Furthermore, some healthcare providers have control over labouring women and their partners such as hospital policies not permitted at some sites to have additional support like partner, family member. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is Programming qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and on demand you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Support During The Birthing Process . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/coursework/support-during-the-birthing-process.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on Essay about of Computer Programming the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.

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