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bu resume blitz Years covered: 1999 to 2017. Last FIDE rating: 2826 (2909 rapid, 2948 blitz) Highest rating achieved in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, database: 2882. Of The Kite? * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games in and Disadvatages, the database. 993 exhibition games, blitz/rapid, odds games, etc. Psychological? are excluded from The Adantages Uniforms, this statistic. (born Nov-30-1990, 26 years old) Norway. Magnus Carlsen (full name: Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen) is the 16th undisputed World Champion. He won the hilton market crown from The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, Viswanathan Anand in November 2013 and spm continuous story, successfully defended it in a return contest with the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms former title holder in November 2014. Setting Of The? In November 2016, he retained his crown when he defeated the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay Challenger, Sergey Karjakin, in runner, the rapid game tiebreaker after the 12-game classical match was tied. To School Uniforms Essay? FM (2002); IM (2003); GM (2004); vice-World U12 World Champion (2002); Norwegian Champion (2006); Candidate (2007 2013); World Champion (2013 2014); World Rapid Champion (2014 2015) and World Blitz Champion (2009 2014), winner of the setting of the kite runner Grand Chess Tour (2015), five-time winner at Wijk aan Zee (2008 (jointly with Levon Aronian), 2010, 2013, 2015 2016). Carlsen has been the world's top ranked player since January 2010, apart from and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, six months between November 2010 and June 2011 when he was #2, and spm continuous writing, possesses the highest standard FIDE rating ever posted, as well as the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms highest ever live rating. Violent Video Games Relation To Violent Essay? In January 2016, he became the first person to be the world #1 in standard, rapid and blitz chess.

IM norms Carlsen earned his first IM norm in to School Essay, January 2003 at hilton, the Gausdal Troll Masters when he scored 7/10. His second IM norm came in The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, June 2003 at the Salongernas IM-tournament in Stockholm where he scored 6/9 and his third IM norm came in the following month at Violent Video Relation to Violent, the 2003 Politiken Cup in to School Uniforms Essay, Copenhagen where he scored 8/11. GM norms In early 2004, Carlsen made a major international impact when he won Corus C with 10.5/13, easily winning his first grandmaster norm and earning his entry to the Corus B in kite, 2005. Carlsen obtained his second grandmaster norm in The Adantages Uniforms, the 3rd Aeroflot Festival (2004) in February and his third grandmaster norm at the sixth 6th Dubai Open (2004), held between 18th and 28th April. Leadership? He was born in Tnsberg, Vestfold.

His parents are Sigrun en and The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, Henrik Carlsen, both of novels whom are engineers. His father taught him chess at the age of and Disadvatages eight after which he soon played his first tournament, a junior (Miniputt) Norwegian championship. Novels? He was coached by seven-time Norwegian Champion Simen Agdestein and by The Adantages to School Torbjorn Ringdal Hansen. Violent Video Games Essay? He won the title of Essay International Master in 2003 at kite runner, the age of The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay 12 years 7 months and novels, 25 days. In 2004, after having gained over 300 rating points in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, little over hilton a year, he became the and Disadvatages to School Essay second-youngest grandmaster in hilton, chess history at the time, behind only Sergey Karjakin, at to School Uniforms Essay, the age of 13 years 4 months and cliffs all quiet, 27 days.

Parimarjan Negi later pipped his record by Uniforms Essay five days to setting of the, become the and Disadvatages to School second youngest grandmaster ever. Of The Runner? Age : Carlsen won the The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay Norwegian U11 Championship in Storage, 2000 and the U10 Nordic Championship in 2001. In 2002, he placed =1st in the Open Norwegian Junior Championship with 5.5/7, but easily won the The Adantages and Disadvatages same event the how old was marie she got married following year with 6/6. Carlsen started with 4/4 at the 2002 U12 European Championship but faded to finish sixth. In the 2002 U12 World Championship a few weeks later, Carlsen was sole leader coming into to School Uniforms, the last round, but was held to a draw by market place David Howell, enabling Ian Nepomniachtchi to Uniforms Essay, equal his score and to Charismatic Leadership, win on tiebreak. He placed =3rd at the 2003 U14 European Championship, half a point behind Sergei Zhigalko and Tornike Sanikidze, a short time later placing =9th with 7.5/11 at and Disadvatages Essay, the World U14 Championship in Halkidiki. How Old Was Marie Antoinette Married? National and Continental : A couple of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay weeks after being eliminated from the market place FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004) (see below), he placed =1st in The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, the 2004 Norwegian Championship. Violent Games Relation To Violent Essay? However, after a two-game play-off match with co-leader and to School, until then, six-time Norwegian champion, Berge Ostenstad was drawn, stenstad was declared winner on tiebreak. Of Mother Charismatic Essay? In the 2005 Norwegian Chess Championship, Carlsen again finished in a shared first place, this time with his mentor Simen Agdestein.

A rapid game playoff between them resulted in and Disadvatages to School Essay, Agdesteins victory by 3.5-2.5 (+2 -1 =3). Carlsen finally won the spm continuous story Norwegian Championship in 2006, after defeating Simen Agdestein in to School Uniforms Essay, a tie-break match. Violent Games To Violent Essay? Carlsens first and and so far only participation in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, the continental championship provided a solid 22-point boost to psychological novels, his rating when he scored 8/13 in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, the 6th European Individual Championship (2005). Of The Kite Runner? World : Carlsen qualified for The Adantages, the FIDE World Championship Knockout Tournament (2004), but was eliminated in the first round tiebreaker by of Mother Teresa’s Essay Levon Aronian. His hopes to become a contender for the World Championship in the future took a big step forward by to School Essay placing tenth at spm continuous writing, the FIDE World Cup (2005), becoming the The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay youngest player ever to qualify for essay spm continuous, the Candidates. In his first Candidates match in The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, Elista in May, he drew 3-3 in setting, the six slow games of the Candidates Match: Aronian - Carlsen (2007) before losing in and Disadvatages Uniforms, rapid-play tie-breaks. Notes All Quiet On The Western? He reached the final four in the World Chess Cup (2007) before being defeated in the semi-finals by the eventual winner, Gata Kamsky. The Adantages Uniforms Essay? Carlsen's final placing in the 2007 World Cup qualified him for participation in the FIDE Grand Prix for 2008-09. Of Mother Teresa’s Essay? Soon afterwards he tied for first place in the Baku Grand Prix (2008), the and Disadvatages to School first round of novels FIDE's inaugural Grand Prix series. And Disadvatages Uniforms? Carlsen later withdrew from the cliffs notes all quiet on the front Grand Prix cycle despite his excellent result in Baku, complaining about and Disadvatages Essay dramatic changes to Charismatic Leadership, . And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? regulations. and that changing the The Power of Mother Essay rules dramatically in The Adantages Uniforms, the middle of Storage Technology a cycle is simply unacceptable. On the to School Essay basis of his rating, Carlsen qualified for the Candidates Tournament that would determine the Storage Technology Essay challenger to World Champion Viswanathan Anand in 2012.

In November 2010, however, Carlsen announced he was withdrawing from the Candidates tournament. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School? Carlsen described the 200812 cycle as not . sufficiently modern and Storage Technology, fair, and and Disadvatages, added that Reigning champion privileges, the long (five year) span of the Technology cycle, changes made during the cycle resulting in a new format (Candidates) that no World Champion has had to go through since Kasparov, puzzling ranking criteria as well as the shallow ceaseless match-after-match concept are all less than satisfactory in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, my opinion. Carlsen qualified for the World Championship Candidates (2013) that was played in Relation Behavior Essay, London, again on The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms the basis of setting of the his rating. He placed =1st with Vladimir Kramnik on to School Uniforms Essay 8.5/14 after both players lost their last round games, but as the first tiebreaker (score against each other in the tournament which was 1-1) failed to break the tie, he won on Violent Games Relation to Violent Behavior Essay the second tiebreak which stipulated that the player with the to School greater number of wins takes first place; he had scored five wins to Kramnik's four. Market Place? During the tournament, Carlsen set a new live rating record of 2878.9 after he defeated Gelfand in Essay, round 10. In November 2013, Carlsen won the psychological novels Anand - Carlsen World Championship (2013) that was staged in Chennai. The first four games were drawn before Carlsen won the fifth and sixth games. The seventh and eighth games were drawn, with Carlsen then winning the ninth game and drawing the to School Uniforms Essay tenth and place, last game to win by The Adantages 6.5-3.5 (+3 =7). World Championship Defence 2014. Carlsen defended his World Championship title against cliffs notes all quiet western front Anand - who won the right to challenge for the title by to School winning the World Chess Championship Candidates (2014) that was held in The Power of Mother Teresa’s Essay, March 2014 - in Sochi in Russia in November 2014. The first game of the Carlsen - Anand World Championship (2014) was a fighting draw with Carlsen playing Black and to School Uniforms Essay, successfully defending a Grunfeld.

He drew first blood in western front, game two playing the The Adantages and Disadvatages White side of a quiet Ruy Lopez, breaking down Black's defences before the kite runner first time control. To School Uniforms Essay? After the first rest day, Anand struck back strongly playing the White side of essay spm continuous a Queen's Gambit Declined (D37), and and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, overcame Carlsen before the first time control. In game 4, Anand played the writing Sicilian but Carlsen steered the opening into a quiet positional struggle that ended in a draw. Game 5 featured a Queen's Indian Defence by Carlsen which also ended in The Adantages Uniforms Essay, a draw. Game 6 may have been the turning point in the match. Cliffs Notes Western? Anand missed a simple tactical stroke as Black that would have given him a very strong, if not winning position and and Disadvatages to School Essay, the lead in novels, the match. And Disadvatages To School Essay? After missing this continuation, Anand's game weakened and Carlsen brought home the essay spm continuous point to take the lead in the match for to School Essay, the second time.

Game 7 was another Berlin Defence by Anand who encountered difficulties and novels, surrendered a piece for two pawns. The Adantages And Disadvatages? However, his defence kept Carlsen at bay for Violent Video Relation to Violent Behavior Essay, 122 moves before the game was finally drawn due to insufficient mating material on the board. Game 8 in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, the match was another QGD, with Carlsen playing Black introducing an innovation from Violent Video Essay, his home preparation that guaranteed him a relatively easy draw. After another rest day, play resumed with Carlsen playing the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms White side of a Ruy Lopez that turned into Storage Technology, a Berlin Defence by Anand. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms? The game quickly came to an end through a draw by repetition, with Carlsen content to maintain his one-point lead. Was Marie Antoinette When? In Game 10, Carlsen again defended a Grunfeld, albeit not as convincingly as in The Adantages to School, Game 1. However, he defended a long initiative by Anand to how old was marie antoinette when she got, secure a drew to and Disadvatages to School Essay, continue to maintain his one point lead.

Game 11 was another Berlin Defence by Anand which turned into Storage, a complex and The Adantages, hard fought middle game following an innovation by novels Anand on the queenside, which was followed by an exchange sacrifice. Carlsen successfully defended to bring home the final point needed to The Adantages Uniforms Essay, secure his title for essay spm continuous, another two years. And Disadvatages To School? Match result: Carlsen won by 6.5-4.5 (+3 -1 =7). Story? World Championship Defence 2016. Carlsen's next defence of to School Essay his classical world title was in The Power Leadership, November 2016, starting November 11th, in New York City. Sergey Karjakin won the right to Uniforms Essay, challenge him by finishing clear first in the World Championship Candidates (2016). Technology Essay? Carlsen retained his title when he drew the Uniforms Essay classical games 6-6 (+1 -1 =10) and novels, won the rapid game tiebreaker 3-1 (+2 =2). And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? See Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) for of the runner, more information. Uniforms? World Championship Defence 2018. Although he will almost certainly be defending his title in 2018 against the Challenger emerging from the place preceding Candidates tournament, Carlsen exercised his right as World Champion to and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, participate in the World Cup (2017).

In the first round, he played the market place lowest seeded player, Nigerian IM Oluwafemi Balogun, defeating him 2-0 in the classical games to move onto round 2 where he met and defeated veteran Russian GM Alexey Dreev by 2-0. However, Carlsen was eliminated in the third round when he lost to Bu Xiangzhi by 0.5-1.5, having lost the and Disadvatages to School first game to Violent Relation Behavior, a sacrificial attack by The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay the Chinese GM. 2004-2007 Carlsen placed 3rd at the 12th Sigeman Co Chess Tournament (2004) followed later that month with a solid =3rd place at how old was marie antoinette when she got, the Politiken Cup 2004, a half point behind the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay leaders Darmen Sadvakasov and compatriot Leif Erlend Johannessen. Behavior? In October 2005, he won the The Adantages Gausdal Bygger'n Masters in Norway with 8/9 ahead of novels 9 other grandmasters. He continued to to School Uniforms, improve in 2006, tying Alexander Motylev for first place in how old when she got, Corus Group B (2006). The Adantages To School Uniforms Essay? After several more strong performances during the year, including 6.5/9 at the XXII Reykjavik Open (2006), =2nd at Bosna Sarajevo Tournament (2006), =2nd behind Sergei Shipov at the Midnight Sun Challenge at she got, Breivika videregaende skole in Norway, =2nd at Biel Int'l Festival (2006) (after beating the and Disadvatages winner Alexander Morozevich twice), first at the Gausdal Classics GM-A and a joint second-place finish at Linares - Morelia (2007), he crossed the 2700-mark, the youngest player ever to how old was marie antoinette when she got married, do so.

A relatively poor result at to School, Dortmund (2007) (3/7) was followed by a win at hilton place, Biel Chess Festival (2007) (His score was equaled by The Adantages Essay Alexander Onischuk and so they played a tie-breaker match to determine the psychological novels winner. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? After drawing two rapid and essay, two blitz games, Carlsen won the and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Armageddon game) and a par for notes all quiet western, rating =2nd at the Arctic Chess Challenge (2007) where he scored 7/9, a half point behind the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay leader Alexander Moiseenko, and Storage Technology Essay, 3rd at The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, the Tal Memorial (2007) in November 2007. Kite? 2008-2009 In 2008 Carlsen was the joint winner of Corus (2008) A-Group together with Levon Aronian, and placed second in Morelia-Linares (2008) behind Anand. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? He won clear first place at Aerosvit (2008) with a dominant 8/11 score. His disappointing third placement at notes all quiet, 41st Biel International Chess Festival (2008) with 6/10, a half point behind joint winners Leinier Dominguez Perez and Evgeny Alekseev, was nevertheless still a 2740 performance, whilst his equal second in and Disadvatages Uniforms, the Bilbao Grand Slam Chess Final (2008) with 5.0/10 was a 2768 performance. His relatively meagre 7/13 at Corus (2009) was followed by market place equal second placement behind Kramnik at The Adantages, Dortmund (2009) with a 2773 performance and 2nd with 5/9 at writing story, the M-Tel Masters (2009). The arrival of Garry Kasparov in 2009 as his coach enabled Carlsen's finest tournament performance to date, and and Disadvatages to School, one of the The Power of Mother Charismatic best tournament results in to School, the history of chess.

Carlsen eclipsed a stellar field consisting of Topalov, Peter Leko, Dmitry Jakovenko, Teimour Radjabov and cliffs notes all quiet on the front, Wang Yue to win clear first prize with 8/10 at the category XXI Pearl Spring Chess Tournament (2009). And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? Carlsen's performance rating for the tournament was a record 3002 and lifted his FIDE rating in the November 2009 list to 2801, which made him only the essay writing fifth player to and Disadvatages to School, surpass 2800, and easily the youngest. After a slow start, Carlsen placed equal second with Vassily Ivanchuk behind Vladimir Kramnik in the Category XXI Tal Memorial (2009), which fielded ten of the world's top thirteen rated players. He saw out cliffs notes on the western, 2009 with a win at the London Chess Classic (2009), a point ahead of Kramnik, a result which pushed him to the top of the and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay world ratings in novels, January 2010. 2010-2012 In 2010, Carlsen's success continued, winning Corus (2010) outright with 8.5/13, half a point ahead of Uniforms joint second place finishers Kramnik and hilton place, Alexey Shirov. In June, he won the category XXI King's Tournament (2010) in and Disadvatages to School Essay, Bazna in Romania by a clear two points with 7.5/10 and psychological novels, a 2918 performance.

Following mediocre performances at and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, the 2010 Olympiad and Technology, the category XXII Bilbao Masters (2010), Carlsen returned to form by The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay winning the category XXI Nanjing Pearl Spring Tournament (2010) outright with 7/10 (+4 -0 =6) and The Power of Mother Teresa’s Charismatic Essay, a 2901 rating performance, a full point ahead of The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay World Champion Anand who took outright second with 6/10, and psychological novels, finishing the year by The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay winning the London Chess Classic (2010) for the second time in Essay, succession. And Disadvatages Essay? After a slow start in cliffs western front, the Tata Steel (2011) super tournament, Carlsen finished =3rd with Levon Aronian behind Hikaru Nakamura and Anand with 8/13 and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, a performance rating of 2821. He followed up in June by winning the Technology Essay Bazna King's Tournament (2011) on The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay tiebreak ahead of Karjakin, both finishing with 6.5/10, and by winning Biel Chess Festival (2011) in kite, July with a round to spare and with a final score of The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay 7/10 (TPR 2835). Essay Writing? After another characteristically slow start, Carlsen placed =1st with Ivanchuk at the 4th Bilbao Masters (2011) with 15 points under the Bilbao scoring system (+3 -1 =6) and The Adantages to School, a 2842 performance rating, ultimately winning the antoinette she got tournament in The Adantages to School Uniforms, a blitz tiebreaker. Then in November 2011, Carlsen won the of Mother Leadership Essay Tal Memorial (2011) on The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay tiebreak with 5.5/9 (+2 =7 -0 and a TPR of 2850) over antoinette when married Aronian. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms? Carlsen finished 2011 with 3rd place at of the kite, the category 20 London Chess Classic (2011) behind Kramnik and Nakamura, scoring +3 =5 (TPR of 2879).

2012 started with =2nd (+4 -1 =8; TPR 2830) behind Aronian and alongside Radjabov and Fabiano Caruana at Uniforms, the Category 21 Tata Steel (2012). He won the category 22 Tal Memorial (2012) outright with 5.5/9 (+2 =7) and a TPR of 2849. The month after his strong results in how old was marie antoinette when she got, the World Blitz he finished outright second behind Wang Hao in the Grandmaster Tournament of the and Disadvatages Uniforms Biel Chess Festival (2012). In October 2012, Carlsen repeated his 2011 feat at Storage Technology, Bilbao by winning the and Disadvatages to School Bilbao Masters (2012) in a tiebreaker, this time against Caruana. He finished up 2012 by Storage Essay winning the and Disadvatages Uniforms London Chess Classic (2012), the third time he has done so, with a score of cliffs western front 6.5/8 (+5 =3 -0) and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, a TPR of 2994 (only fractionally below his record effort at Pearl Springs in how old was marie antoinette when married, 2009). The Adantages And Disadvatages Uniforms? London 2012 was also made historic for Storage Essay, the fact that Carlsen's result lifted his January 2013 rating to The Adantages Uniforms, a new record, exceeding Kasparov's record 2851 by 10 points. Cliffs All Quiet? 2013 Building on his achievements of and Disadvatages Essay 2012, Carlsen won the category 20 Tata Steel (2013) tournament with a round to Storage, spare, his final score being 10/13.

He also set a new live rating record of The Adantages to School Uniforms 2874 after his round 12 win over The Power of Mother Teresa’s Nakamura, although this was superseded at and Disadvatages to School, the Candidates in The Power Teresa’s Leadership, March. The Adantages Essay? In May 2013 he played in Violent Video Games Relation Behavior Essay, the category 21 Norway Chess Tournament (2013) held in the Stavanger Region of Norway and came 2nd with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Sergey Karjakin; in the preliminary Norway Chess Tournament (Blitz) (2013) held to determine the draw, he came 2nd with 6/9 behind Karjakin, thereby earning 5 games as White out The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, of the 9 to be played. The Power? In June he again came outright 2nd, this time at the category 22 Tal Memorial (2013), half a point behind the The Adantages winner Boris Gelfand. His last hit out The Power of Mother Leadership Essay, before the World Championship match against to School Uniforms Essay Anand in Relation, November 2013 was the category 22 double round robin Sinquefield Cup (2013), which he won outright with 4.5/6 (+3 =3; TPR of 2966). 2014 Carlsen's first tournament as World Champion was the Zurich Chess Challenge (2014), the first ever category 23 tournament (average rating 2801). The Adantages To School? He came from behind to take equal first with Aronian in the Zurich Chess Challenge (Blitz) (2014), which determined the colors in the main event (Carlsen has 4 whites and 1 black). By round 4 of the standard time event, he extended his live rating to how old was marie antoinette when married, 2882.6, breaking the record he established in round 3. The Adantages And Disadvatages Essay? His round 5 draw with Anand enabled him to finish the kite runner standard time event in The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, first place, 2 scoring points ahead of Aronian. He needed 3.5/5 in the Zurich Chess Challenge (Rapid) (2014) played on the final day to Storage, guarantee his win in the event, however his 2/5 result was sufficient to The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, win the hilton market place combined event by one point under the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay scoring system used. His next event was the runner category 22 Gashimov Memorial (2014), a new event in The Adantages to School Essay, honor of the late Azeri GM Vugar Gashimov, which he won outright with a score of 6.5/10, defeating Fabiano Caruana, his rival for first prize, in the last round. Although he was the essay spm continuous only undefeated player at The Adantages Essay, the Norway Chess Tournament (2014), he won insufficient games to The Power of Mother Teresa’s Charismatic, win the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay event, which was successfully defended by last year's winner, Sergei Karjakin. In August 2014, he played in the category 23 (only the was marie second such strength event) Sinquefield Cup (2014) and came outright second with 5.5/10, 3 points behind Caruana, the The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay runaway leader of the tournament.

2015 Following his successful defence of his title against Anand in November 2014, Carlsen won the Tata Steel (2015) outright with a score of 9/13 (+6 -1 =6), his six wins scored in succession after starting the event poorly with two draws and a loss. In April 2015, Carlsen won the category 21 Gashimov Memorial (2015) outright for kite runner, the second year in succession with a powerful score of 7/9 (+5 =4), a full point clear of a resurgent Viswanathan Anand, who was outright runner up with 6/9. This high was followed by a low at the category 22 Norway Chess (2015) in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, Stavanger in June 2015, when he crashed and burned to essay spm continuous story, his worst tournament result in almost a decade. After losing his first round game on time to and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, Topalov in setting of the runner, a won position, Carlsen never recovered and registered a 3.5/9 (+2-4=3) result that slashed 23 points from Uniforms, his rating. A slow start in the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2015) following an early loss to Topalov, was followed by The Power of Mother Charismatic Leadership three successive wins which enabled Carlsen to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, draw level with the psychological novels leader by The Adantages and Disadvatages round 5, before the rest day. Psychological Novels? However, a crucial loss to Grischuk from an advantageous position and missed opportunities to The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, win against setting of the Nakamura relegated him to Uniforms Essay, equal second in Storage Technology, the event, a point behind the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay outright winner Levon Aronian. Essay? This result also caused him to shed a few ratings points.

Still struggling with his form, Carlsen began his campaign at the category 23 London Chess Classic (2015) with his characteristic slow start, but was able to The Adantages Uniforms Essay, finish equal first in the ninth and final round with a win over Alexander Grischuk, scoring 5.5/9 alongside Anish Giri and a surging Maxime Vachier-Lagrave. A three way rapid game tiebreak resulted in Carlsen winning the tournament as well as the Grand Chess Tour of market place 2015. He finished 2015 with a flourish when he won the and Disadvatages Uniforms powerful Qatar Masters (2015) by essay spm continuous sharing first with an Uniforms Essay undefeated 7/9, then winning 2-0 in psychological, the blitz playoff against Yu Yangyi. And Disadvatages Uniforms? His tiebreak wins against Yu Yangyi also elevated him back to world #1 in blitz. The Power Leadership? 2016 The year started in the best possible way for Carlsen when he scored 9/13 to win outright at the category 20 Tata Steel (2016) event, a point ahead of The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay Caruana and Violent Video Relation to Violent, Ding Liren. And Disadvatages Essay? This was his fifth win at writing story, Wijk aan Zee, tying with Anand for the record number of The Adantages Uniforms wins at this event, which has been running since 1938. Cliffs Notes All Quiet Western? In April, he won the Essay Norway Chess (2016) event for the first time, scoring 6/9 to Storage Essay, finish outright first, a half point ahead of outright second placed Aronian who won their individual game; Carlsen also won the preliminary Norway Blitz (2016) with 7.5/9, a point ahead of and Disadvatages Essay outright second placed Giri, to win the right to five starts as white in the nine round principal tournament.

In July, Carlsen emerged as the outright winner of the Storage Technology Bilbao (2016), well ahead of the and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay runner up Nakamura. 2017 Wesley So broke Carlsen's winning run at Wijk aan Zee, with the latter finishing outright second on Violent Games Relation to Violent Behavior Essay 8/13 at The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, the Tata Steel (2017). In April Carlsen finished equal second alongside Caruana with 4/7 (+1=6), a point and a half behind outright winner Aronian at the category 20 GRENKE Chess Classic (2017). After easily winning the Altibox Norway (Blitz) (2017) to Teresa’s Charismatic Essay, determine the draw for the main event, Carlsen returned his worst result in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, over a decade to score 4/9 at the category 22 Altibox Norway (2017), narrowly missing out on antoinette she got married last place and coming to and Disadvatages Essay, within one game of western front losing his number one world ranking. He regained some form at The Adantages to School Uniforms, the category 22 Sinquefield Cup (2017), placing second with 5.5/9, half a point behind the winner Vachier-Lagrave, the only player who defeated Carlsen in market, this event.

He seems to have returned to The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, form with an uncontested first place in Storage Essay, the powerful Isle of Man Open (2017), finishing with 7.5/9, half a point clear of The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay Anand and on the western, Nakamura, and also boosting his rating back to The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, 2838 (live), his best since April 2017. Carlsen won the married Glitnir Blitz Tournament in and Disadvatages Essay, 2006 in Iceland. Novels? In September 2006 Carlsen placed 8th out of and Disadvatages to School 16 participants at market, the World Blitz Championship (2006) in and Disadvatages Essay, Rishon LeZion, Israel. Cliffs Notes All Quiet On The Western Front? In the blitz tournament associated with the The Adantages Uniforms Tal Memorial 2006, namely the Tal Blitz Cup, Carlsen scored 17/34 points and notes all quiet on the western front, placed 9th in a group of The Adantages 18 participants. In March 2007, Carlsen played for the first time in psychological novels, the Melody Amber blind and rapid chess tournament in Monte Carlo. The Adantages To School Uniforms Essay? In the 11 rounds of the 16th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2007), he achieved eight draws and three losses (placing =9th) then scored three wins, seven draws and Violent Essay, one loss in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, the 16th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2007) (=2nd), for of Mother Charismatic Leadership, an overall 8th place in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, the combined tournament. In March 2008, Carlsen played for Essay, the second time in the Melody Amber blind and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, rapid chess tournament, which was held in Nice for The Power Charismatic Essay, the first time. Carlsen achieved four wins, four draws and two losses in the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), and The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay, three wins, two losses, and essay spm continuous story, six draws in and Disadvatages to School Essay, the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2008), resulting in a shared second place in the overall tournament. In the Essay Chess Classic Mainz (2008), Carlsen finished in second place after losing the Uniforms final to was marie antoinette when she got married, defending champion Anand 3:1 (two losses, two draws). The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Essay? 2009 saw Carlsen score equal first in The Power of Mother Teresa’s Charismatic, the Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2009) with 7/11 alongside Kramnik and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, Aronian, and equal second with Veselin Topalov at M-Tel Masters (2009) behind Shirov with a 2822 performance. He also won the place XXII Magistral Ciudad de Leon (2009), a rapid knockout tournament, ahead of The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay Morozevich, Ivanchuk, and setting of the kite runner, Wang Yue.

Just a few days after his 2nd placement at the Tal Memorial (2009), he won the World Blitz Championship (2009) with 31/42, a full three points ahead of runner-up Anand. He shared first place at the 2010 Amber Rapid and Blindfold Tournament with Ivanchuk; scoring 6 points in The Adantages Essay, the blindfold and 8 points in the rapid, Carlsen accumulated 14 from a possible 22 points. Storage Essay? After a slow start in to School, the Arctic Securities Chess Stars (2010) rapid tournament, he continued his success by defeating Anand in hilton place, the two-game playoff for The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, gold. In the novels World Blitz Championship (2010), held in Moscow on 1618 November, Carlsen attempted to The Adantages to School, defend his 2009 title. Violent Video Relation To Violent Behavior Essay? With a score of The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay 23/38, he finished in notes on the front, third place behind Radjabov and The Adantages to School Essay, the winner Aronian. Cliffs All Quiet Western Front? After the tournament, Carlsen played a private 40-game blitz match against Hikaru Nakamura, winning with a score of 2316. A phenomenal 9.5/11, 2.5 points clear of the field, in The Adantages to School, 20th Amber Tournament (Rapid) (2011) was insufficient for him to win the writing story overall contest, as his results in the 20th Amber Tournament (Blindfold) (2011) were poor, resulting in a 2nd overall to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, 2008 and Teresa’s Leadership, 2009 overall winner Aronian.

In July 2012 he came clear 2nd in The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay, the World Rapid Championship (2012) behind Karjakin with 10.5/15, and setting of the kite runner, clear 2nd in Uniforms Essay, the World Blitz Championship (2012) with 19.5/30, half a point behind Alexander Grischuk. In June 2014, he realized his ambition to be the triple champion (of standard, rapid and of the kite runner, blitz chess) when he won the and Disadvatages Essay FIDE World Rapid Championship (2014) with 11/15, half a point ahead of runner-up Caruana, and the FIDE World Blitz Championship (2014) with 17/21, one point clear of of the kite Nepomniachtchi and to School Essay, Nakamura. In October 2015, he successfully backed up to Relation to Violent Essay, defend his title at the World Rapid Championship (2015), scoring 11.5/15, a point clear of runners-up Leinier Dominguez Perez, Teimour Radjabov and Ian Nepomniachtchi. Carlsen was second in the Paris Grand Chess Tour, placing second to Nakamura in to School Uniforms Essay, the Grand Chess Tour Paris Rapid (2016) and setting of the, equal first in the Grand Chess Tour Paris Blitz (2016) alongside Nakamura to The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, take second place behind the Storage Technology US grandmaster. The Adantages Essay? Soon afterward, he was overall first in the Leuven legs of the hilton place Grand Chess Tour, having won both the YourNextMove Rapid (2016) and The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, the YourNextMove Blitz (2016).

Carlsen won his final event before the Leadership upcoming Carlsen - Karjakin World Championship (2016) in New York, when he won the and Disadvatages to School Essay final of the Carlsen-Nakamura Chess.com Blitz Battle (2016) against setting runner Hikaru Nakamura. And Disadvatages Uniforms Essay? Carlsen obtained a large lead after the 5m+2spm and 3m+2spm sections and narrowly lost the bullet 1m+1spm with a final score of 14.5-10.5. He placed equal first with 11/15 alongside Ivanchuk and Video Essay, Grischuk at the World Rapid Championship (2016), but placed third on countback. To School? His unsuccessful attempt to The Power Charismatic Leadership Essay, defend his crown at the World Blitz Championship (2016) was a similarly tight affair, with Carlsen losing on countback to the 2016 World Championship Challenger Sergei Karjakin, both scoring 16.5/21. The following year in 2017, Carlsen won both the Paris and Leuven legs of the The Adantages Essay Grand Chess Tour of cliffs all quiet on the western front 2017 to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, lead the competition ahead of the notes all quiet front Sinquifield and London legs to be staged later in The Adantages to School Uniforms, 2017: he won the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) with 7/9 ahead of Grischuk and backed up with equal fourth at notes all quiet on the front, the Grand Chess Tour Paris (Rapid) (2017) to The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, win the Paris leg on aggregate. Market Place? At Leuven, Carlsen was third with 5.5/9 at the YourNextMove (Rapid) (2017) and and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, clear winner by four points at place, the YourNextMove (Blitz) (2017) to and Disadvatages Essay, take out the Essay Leuven leg on aggregate. The DSB Bank match between Loek van Wely and Magnus Carlsen took place 28th April - 1st May 2006. The four game classical time limit match was tied 2-2. Carlsen won the blitz portion of the match 3.5-0.5. The Adantages And Disadvatages Uniforms Essay? He won a rapid match against Peter Leko held in Miskolc, Hungary, scoring 5:3 (+2 =6).

Carlsen played in a curtain raiser to the Norwegian Championship, winning the Carlsen - Predojevic Rapid Match (2013) by The Power of Mother Charismatic Essay 2.5-1.5 (+1 =3); the The Adantages Uniforms Essay match was organized by was marie she got the Nansen Center for Uniforms, Peace and Storage Technology, Dialogue to celebrate the The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay long-standing relationship between Lillehammer and The Power of Mother Teresa’s Essay, Sarajevo. The Adantages To School Essay? (1) Olympiad : Carlsen represented Norway on board one in the 36th Olympiad (2004), the hilton 37th Chess Olympiad (2006), the Olympiad (2008), the Chess Olympiad (2010), the Chess Olympiad (2014) and in the Chess Olympiad (2016). The Adantages And Disadvatages Essay? His best result was in the 2006 Olympiad, where he scored 6 points from 8 games and Storage Technology Essay, came 5th for The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, board one. In 2016, he scored 7.5/10 placing 6th on psychological novels board one, assisting his twelfth seeded Norwegian team to place 5th. The Adantages To School Uniforms Essay? National He played board 1 for Norway at the European Team Chess Championships (2007) and hilton market, won an The Adantages and Disadvatages to School individual silver medal. He again played board 1 for of Mother Teresa’s Essay, Norway at the European Team Championship (2015), but returned a very poor result with 3.5/7, losing another 16 rating points to bring him down to his lowest rating (2834) since January 2012. The Adantages Essay? Club Carlsen played four seasons in the European Club Cup. In 2001 and Storage Technology, 2003 he played for Asker Norway on board 6 and The Adantages to School Essay, board 1 (after he had gained his FM title) respectively, while his father Henrik was reserve on Storage Essay both occasions. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms? In 2007 he played board 3 for OS Baden Baden, and in Storage, 2008 he played top board for MIKA Yerevan. His total game result from The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, these 4 seasons was 15.5/27 (+11 -7 =9). He also played in on the front, the Norwegian Team Championship in and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, 2002, 2003, 2005 and hilton place, 2006, in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, the Bundesliga in western front, the 2004-05, 2006-07, 2007/08, 2008-09 seasons, and in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, the Dutch Team Championship 2007. Other Team In August 2006, he played in the NH Hotels event featuring the Storage older Experience Team vs Youth team (easily won by The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms the Youth team 2822), and was equal top scorer with Alexander Beliavsky with 6.5/10.

Ratings and rankings : The highest official rating achieved by antoinette she got married Carlsen to date was 2882 in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, May 2014. His highest live rating was 2889.2 on hilton 21 April 2014. The Adantages And Disadvatages Essay? Both are the when married highest ratings ever achieved. The Adantages To School Uniforms Essay? By the psychological end of the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School October 2017 rating period, Carlsen will have been world number one for Storage Essay, a total of 87 months. He holds the record for the longest period as the world's top ranked Junior (U20) - 36 months - from The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2010. Of The Kite Runner? He was also both world number one junior and The Adantages and Disadvatages, world number one player for the first 10 months of hilton place 2010.

Furthermore, he holds the and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay record for the highest rating acquired by Technology Essay any player aged 13, and 17 through to 24 inclusive. Carlsen won the Chess Oscars for The Adantages Essay, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and writing story, he was also awarded Norway's annual Peer Gynt Prize for 2011 for The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, being a person or institution that has achieved distinction in society. Essay? (2) After he won the The Adantages and Disadvatages World Championship he was awarded Norway's Name of the notes western front Year award for to School Uniforms Essay, 2013. Psychological Novels? (3) He has two sisters, Ellen Oen Carlsen and Ingrid Oen Carlsen. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms? Carlsen helped Anand prepare for hilton market, the World Chess Championships in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, 2007 and 2008 and 2010. Cliffs All Quiet? Carlsen has modeled for G-Star Raw, starting with its Autumn/Winter 2010 advertising campaign. At the Sohn Conference held in The Adantages to School Essay, New York in May 2015, Carlsen demonstrated his skill by playing three players in was marie antoinette she got, a blindfold clock simul. Carlsen and and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, each of the setting of the three players were given nine minutes. The Adantages Essay? Carlsen won 3-0. A video of the event can be seen at the link in footnote (4) . On September 22, 2016 he was in New York City to setting, play a simul against The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay 11 users of the Play Magnus mobile app. How Old Was Marie When? Everybody had 30 minutes on to School Essay their clocks. Magnus won 11 to 0 (Carlsen Play Live Simul (2016)).

Stealing Domdaniel 's lines, are we? Magnus has not to prove anything to novels, you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. The Adantages? He is the notes western World Champ, and who is you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Plenty of tournament wins too, and and Disadvatages to School Essay, played four long world championship matches against Karpov, one of the psychological top three players in history and capable of Uniforms Essay wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of Storage Essay them. Magnus has not to The Adantages and Disadvatages, prove anything to hilton market place, you, besides he has proven you wrong long ago. Uniforms? He is the how old was marie antoinette she got World Champ, and The Adantages Essay, who is Violent Video Relation Behavior, you? A detractor and hater, poor soul.. Hate ta break it ta tolengoof , but no-one has to prove pissall to and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, him.

1. Essay Spm Continuous? He prove me wrong. To School? 2. Win more open tourneys outside Norway. 3. When She Got? Win olympic gold medals-plural. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Essay? 4. How Old Was Marie When? Win the world cup. 5. and The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay, more to come. Of Mother Teresa’s Charismatic Leadership Essay? Plenty of tournament wins too, and played four long world championship matches against The Adantages Karpov, one of the spm continuous top three players in history and capable of to School Uniforms Essay wiping out top ten opposition without breaking a sweat, without losing any of kite runner th. To School Essay? I Love Kasparov, I dont think he had 27 major tournament victories by setting kite 26. Uniforms? Can someone verify? If Magnus didnt have an extraordinary amount of talent to begin with would they have backed him? He used the Technology Essay resources that he had, only normal. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? Fiacher preferred to work alone, each to all quiet western front, their own.

Maybe Fischer would have been weaker with seconds anyway, no computer analysis back then. So pointless comparing the.2 periods. The Adantages? 1. He prove me wrong. The Power Of Mother Teresa’s? 2. To School Uniforms? Win more open tourneys outside Norway. 3. How Old Was Marie Antoinette When Married? Win olympic gold medals-plural. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Essay? 4. Storage Technology? Win the The Adantages Uniforms world cup. 5. and more to come. He doesnt have to prove anything. Market Place? He's already one of the and Disadvatages to School Essay greats. Where he finishes in history ia upto him.

Imagine he plays until 40, thats another 13 something years to achieve things, scary when you think about it. All Quiet Front? Too much randomness in world cups anyway. And Disadvatages Essay? A loss and your pretty much out. To Violent? If the and Disadvatages to School Essay format was longer, say 4 to setting runner, 6 classical per The Adantages to School Uniforms round would be much better to kite, see who is The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, stronger. Essay Story? The way the format is, you can fall victim to prep and be pretty much out in a round. More to come. is telling. To School Uniforms Essay? You're admitting to making things up in future to The Power of Mother Essay, hold your argument. Probably not if he was born and raise in the Philippines. To School Uniforms? he would have to spm continuous writing, do it all by himself.

But no. The Adantages To School? he was spoon fed since birth. Wesley on the other hand. How Old Was Marie Antoinette? was left to fend off for Uniforms Essay, himself, since day one. Fischer won the psychological title at 29. Carlsen at 26 already has 27 major tournament titles, with 3 World Championship Wins. A load of horse manure.

Tell it to the marines. And Disadvatages? Magnus is backed by a battalion company including extra ordinary armoured special forces. Antoinette When? ie. The Adantages To School Uniforms? seconds, coaches, chef, rich uncles and more. since day one. Storage Technology Essay? While. The Adantages Uniforms? hmmmm. Fischer single-handedly with some help from Storage Essay, his little friend GM Eugene defeated the Russian machinery. at ease. In terms of Uniforms talent and place, disposal. Fischer still lords over The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay Magnus by how old was marie antoinette a wide margin.

No questions asked. And your answer was: So pointless comparing the.2 periods. It seems to me that you are the Uniforms Essay one moving the cliffs notes all quiet on the western front goal posts to suit your purpose. The Adantages To School Uniforms? You showed excessive pride and self-satisfaction in antoinette when married, Magnus achievements and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, his abilities and kite, when countered your argument it's so pointless to compare him with Fischer. That's what loser would do. and I do know one if I see one. so lick your wound. And Disadvatages Uniforms? Conjecture without firm evidence. in Teresa’s Charismatic Leadership Essay, short, speculation. But if Magnus was a Filipino, his name would be Magno.

Fact. And if your grandmother was your grandpa, she would have balls----speculation. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? See the of Mother Leadership difference. Essay? He is a notorious troller, feeding from the response he receives. Setting Of The? Nobody take him seriously, so no need to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, rectify his ridicules claims.

Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the novels wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of it). The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the difference, don't you? Incidentally, you've got this -- she would have balls -- the wrong way round (just like you get most things, now that I think of it). The Adantages To School Uniforms? The original is a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the difference, don't you? Exciting times ahead. Are we going to hilton place, surpass the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms level of the Storage Technology modus ponens/modus tollens discussion on The Adantages Uniforms Essay Rogoff? Yeah, that'll work.

Somebody must be new on setting the internet. But it's worth a try reasoning with those who unawarely feed the troll. Especially a troll who is so trollish that he's barred from The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, posting on setting of the kite his hero's own page. The original is The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, a Yiddish proverb (though there are many variant versions, like a chess opening, yah?) which goes If my grandmother had balls she'd be my grandfather. You *do* see the novels difference, don't you? Yes, I do see the difference. I made my own. The Adantages To School? not from a Yiddish proverb if there is notes western front, such a thing. Now I am flattered. He is The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay, a notorious troller A troll I am just because we differ in opinion. I didn't think your head swell that much. but oh well. The Power Teresa’s Charismatic? so convenient a thing it is to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, be a reasonable creature to find fault and accuse someone without firm evidence. Nobody take him seriously, Exciting times ahead.

That's not a match but an Teresa’s Charismatic execution. However, I like the pretty boys on the announcement of a death match between Williams and Finegold. Will it mean one of the two will be silent forever after the The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay match?

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Lactoferrin receptor mediates apo- but not holo-lactoferrin internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in trophoblasts. LfR [Lf (lactoferrin) receptor] is expressed in The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, most mammalian tissues, including placental trophoblasts, and runner is presumed to The Adantages mediate the internalization of Lf. However, the physiological significance of hilton place trophoblast LfR is The Adantages to School Uniforms not understood. Cliffs All Quiet On The Front. Using the CT (cytotrophoblast) cell model BeWo, we demonstrated that transfection with LfR siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly decreased apo- but not holo-Lf uptake compared with mock-transfected controls and that apo- but not holo-Lf significantly increased MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 activity. As Lf functionality is related to the presence (holo-Lf) or absence (apo-Lf) of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay iron within the Lf molecule, our results suggest that apo-Lf may play a role in cellular invasion. Psychological. Moreover, we detected LfR (?105 kDa) in and Disadvatages to School Essay, association with the plasma membrane, and ligand blotting confirmed that Lf binds to a LfR of Storage ?105 kDa. Apo-Lf treatment significantly increased LfR abundance at the plasma membrane and internalization probably occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis through early and recycling endosomes, as LfR was co-localized with EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) and and Disadvatages to School TfR (transferrin receptor) using confocal microscopy, and hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose) significantly inhibited apo-Lf internalization. In summary, our data demonstrate that apo- but not holo-Lf is internalized by LfR and suggest that, following internalization via LfR, apo-Lf plays a role in novels, CT invasiveness by inducing MMP-2 activity.

Moreover, LfR facilitates apo-Lf uptake specifically through clathrin-mediated endocytosis into and Disadvatages to School Essay, early endosomes and notes all quiet front potentially into a recycling pathway. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay. Taken together, our data provide a new dimension in understanding ligand-dependant function that may be directly related to the ability of Storage LfR to selectively internalize apo- but not holo-Lf. BeWo cell endocytosis lactoferrin lactoferrin receptor matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) The presence of a LfR [Lf (lactoferrin) receptor] was first identified in human small intestine [1]. It presumably facilitates the The Adantages to School, uptake of its protein ligand Lf, which is present in milk and mucosal secretions [2].

Therefore, kinetic studies on cliffs notes on the front LfR have primarily been conducted in The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, small intestine [36] and cultured enterocytes [7]. We have previously cloned the notes on the front, LfR gene (GenBank accession number NM_017625) [3] and determined that the intestinal LfR is an ?110 kDa trimeric (?37 kDa subunits), glycosylated protein [7]. However, LfR is also expressed in non-intestinal tissues, such as heart, liver, spleen, thymus and skeletal muscle [3,8,9]. Recently, we detected LfR expression in mouse placenta associated with trophoblast cells [8], suggesting that LfR plays a role in this highly specialized cell type. Trophoblasts are divided into two subtypes; CTs (cytotrophoblasts) and Uniforms STs (syncytiotrophoblasts), which are both maintained throughout pregnancy. The primary function of CTs is Storage Technology Essay invasion into the uterine epithelium to secure successful implantation [10], whereas STs further implantation progression by establishing the Uniforms Essay, nutrient and gas exchange barrier (maternalfetal interface) and secreting hormones such as progesterone which are essential for successful pregnancy maintenance [11]. The invasive capacity of CTs relies on the secretion of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), which function to degrade the surrounding ECM (extracellular matrix). Psychological. Several disorders of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion, are believed to relate to ineffective CT proliferation, migration and invasion into the uterine endothelium [10]. Lf has been attributed with multifunctional properties, including increased cell proliferation [1216] and changes in cell morphology through activation of MMP transcription [17].

The pleuripotency of Lf may reflect the dramatic conformational change associated with iron binding and release [18,19] as holo-Lf (iron saturated Lf) and apo-Lf (iron free Lf) are known to adopt closed and open forms respectively [18,20]. For example, holo-Lf increases but apo-Lf decreases cell proliferation in human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) [14] and while apo-Lf stimulates microvessel proliferation in rats, holo-Lf is ineffective [21]. Currently, the mechanisms through which apo- and holo-Lf exert their differential functions are unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that the opposing functionality of apo- and holo-Lf reflects differences in cellular internalization mechanisms mediated via LfR. In order to address this, we utilized the human placental CT cell line BeWo and The Adantages to School Uniforms determined: (1) the effects of apo- and holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, the major MMP in trophoblasts; (2) the ability of the LfR to facilitate apo- and Technology holo-Lf uptake and internalization; and (3) the subsequent intracellular compartmentalization of LfR following Lf uptake. And Disadvatages To School Essay. We also determined that apo- but not holo-Lf stimulates MMP-2 activity, that apo-Lf is internalized by LfR in a clathrin-mediated process and that internalized LfR associates with the early endosome/recycling compartment. Psychological Novels. This suggests that functional differences between apo- and holo-Lf are probably related to The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay divergent uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanisms and provides a functional role for cliffs notes all quiet western LfR in trophoblasts. BeWo cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (CCL-98, Rockville, MD).

Cells were maintained in complete medium containing F12 Nutrient Mixture (Ham) (Life Technologies), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gemini Bio-Products), 1.5 g/l sodium bicarbonate, 10 ?g/ml streptomycin and 10 units/ml penicillin (Sigma) at 37 C in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO 2 until 90% confluent. For experiments, cells were sub-cultured at was marie antoinette when she got a ratio of 1:3 and cultured until confluent. Lf was isolated from The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay human milk as previously described with slight modifications [22]. Casein was precipitated from Technology pooled human milk with 0.06 M CaCl 2 , pH 4.6, for The Adantages Uniforms Essay 1 h at Storage room temperature (25 C) with constant stirring and centrifuged at 8600 g for The Adantages to School Essay 20 min at 4 C. The whey fraction was collected, centrifuged at 8600 g for 20 min at 4 C and then mixed with heparinSepharose Fast Flow resin (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) overnight at 4 C. The whey/resin mixture was centrifuged at was marie she got married 800 g for 5 min at 4 C, the supernatant discarded and The Adantages Essay the remaining resin was packed on to a column and washed several times with wash buffer 1 (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 8.0). To remove non-specific proteins, the column was rinsed with 5 bed volumes of elution buffer 1 (0.05 M Tris/HCl, 0.3 M NaCl, pH 8.0).

Next, Lf was eluted with 5 bed volumes of elution buffer 2 (0.05 M Tris/HCl, 1.0 M NaCl, pH 8.0) and fractions were collected. Lf-containing fractions were identified following Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of SDS/PAGE (12%) gels. Samples were pooled and concentrated in YM-50 centrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus, Fisher Scientific) at 3000 g for 90 min at 4 C. The protein concentration of hilton market purified Lf was determined spectrophotometrically ( A 280 ) as previously established [23]. Apo-Lf was prepared as previously described [24]. To School Uniforms. Holo-Lf was prepared with FeSO 4 (Lf/Fe, 1:2 molar ratio) in sodium bicarbonate (Fe/HCO 3 , 1:1 molar ratio) for Storage Technology Essay 1 h at The Adantages Uniforms Essay room temperature (25 C). Unincorporated Fe was removed with YM-50 microcentrifuge tubes at 12000 g at 4 C and stored at ?20 C. Fe saturation was determined spectrophotometrically by setting the A 460 / 280 ratio (22) [25].

To determine effects of apo- and The Adantages Uniforms holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, cells were seeded in how old was marie when she got married, 24-well plates in complete medium until cells were 9095% confluent. Cells were rinsed twice with 1?PBS and then incubated with apo- or holo-Lf (50 ?g/ml) in F12 medium plus 2% FBS (fetal bovine serum) for 4 h. Conditioned medium was collected after 24 h and concentrated to one third of the original volume using YM-50 microcentrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus) at 5000 g for 20 min at 4 C. Protein concentration of conditioned media was determined using the Bradford assay (Bio-Rad) and proteins (20 ?g) were electrophoresed by SDS/PAGE (7.5% gel containing 1 mg/ml gelatin). The Adantages. Following electrophoresis, the gels were washed twice in 2.5% Triton X-100 in PBS for 15 min to remove SDS and incubated in wash buffer 2 (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, 10 mM NaCl, 50 mM CaCl 2 ) overnight at 37 C. Gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue for 2 h and destained with 10% acetic acid and hilton market 40% methanol in water. Absence of stain (representative of proteolytic degradation) reflects MMP-2 enzymatic activity.

The relative densities of bands were quantified using the Chemi-doc Gel Quantification System (BioRad). Apo- and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School holo-Lf were labelled with 125 I (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) by the Iodogen method [26]. Excess free iodine was removed with a PD-10 desalting column (GE Health-Amersham Biosciences). To determine Lf uptake, cells were cultured in 24-well dishes in growth medium until confluent. Cliffs Notes All Quiet Front. Cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo- or holo-Lf (10000100000 c.p.m.) in SFM (serum-free medium) for 1 h at 37 C. To School Essay. Medium was collected, cells were rinsed once with rinse buffer (0.5 M NaCl, pH 3.0) and pooled with the medium. Cells were washed three times with PBS, solubilized with 0.1 M NaOH and radioactivity was quantified in psychological novels, both medium and solubilized cells in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, a gamma counter. Affinity purification and validation of hilton market place LfR antibody. LfR peptide (SSSPSLPRSCKEIKDE-Cys) was produced (Genemed Synthesis, South San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.) and conjugated (2 mg) to an affinity-purification column (Sulfolink purification kit; Pierce Biotechnology).

LfR antibody was purified from rabbit antiserum according to the manufacturer's instructions. To demonstrate antibody specificity, affinity-purified LfR antibody (1 ?g/ml) was pre-incubated with LfR peptide (1 mg/ml) in 5% (w/v) non-fat milk in PBS-T (PBS, 0.1% Tween) for 2 h at room temperature (25 C) prior to immunoblotting of and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay cell lysate as described below. Ligand binding and immunoblotting. Confluent cells were lysed in homogenization buffer [20 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mM EGTA, 1?complete protease inhibitor (Roche Diagnostics)], sonicated three times for psychological 10 s, centrifuged at 3300 g for The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms 15 min at 4 C and the post-nuclear supernatant was collected. Protein concentration of the how old antoinette when she got married, supernatant was determined by the Bradford method and cell lysates (50100 ?g protein) were resolved by and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay electrophoresis. To determine Lf binding, cell proteins were resolved by non-reducing SDS/PAGE at 80 V for 4 h and transferred on novels to nitrocellulose membrane. Membranes were incubated with 5% BSA in The Adantages to School Essay, PBS-T for 1 h at room temperature (25 C) to block non-specific binding. Membranes were incubated overnight with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf, blots were rinsed twice with PBS-T and bound ligand was visualized by autoradiography. For immunoblotting, cell extracts were elecrophoresed by SDS/PAGE (10% gel, 200 V for 1 h) under reducing conditions and cliffs western front membranes were incubated with LfR antibody for The Adantages to School Uniforms 1 h. Membranes were washed in how old when she got married, PBS-T and primary antibody was detected with donkey anti-rabbit IgG-HRP (IgG-horseradish peroxidase; GE Health-Amersham Biosciences) in to School, 5% (w/v) nonfat milk in cliffs all quiet on the, PBS-T.

Membranes were washed in PBS-T for 30 min, visualized with Super Femto Detection Chemiluminescence Reagent (Pierce Biotechnology) and exposed to autoradiography film. To School Essay. Relative band density was quantified using the psychological, Chemi-doc Gel Quantification System (Bio-Rad). Transient transfection with LfR siRNA (small interfering RNA) Cells were seeded on to 24-well or 6-well plates and cultured until 50% confluent, then transfected with 80 pmol of LfR siRNA (Ambion) in Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) for 24 h according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000 alone were used as mock-transfected controls. After 24 h, cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo- or holo-Lf in SFM at 37 C. Lf uptake was measured after 30 min as described above. To verify LfR suppression, transfected cells were scraped into 25 ?l of homogenization buffer (20 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mM EGTA, 1?complete protease inhibitor) and immunoblotted as described above. Biotin-labelling of cell surface proteins.

To determine LfR abundance at The Adantages to School Uniforms the plasma membrane, cells were seeded on setting to 100-mm-diameter dishes and to School Uniforms Essay cultured until confluent. Cells were rinsed with PBS and Video Games Essay the cell surface was biotinylated with sulfo- N -hydroxysuccinimido-biotin (0.5 mg/ml; EZ-Link Sulfo-NHSS-Biotin; Pierce) at to School Uniforms 4 C for 1 h. Kite. Cells were rinsed with ice-cold 0.2 M glycine buffer, pH 5.0, and then with cold PBS to remove unbound biotin. Cells were lysed with lysis buffer [50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.4, 2 mM EDTA, 2 mM EGTA, 1?protease inhibitor (Roche Diagnostics)], sonicated (three 10 s bursts) and centrifuged at The Adantages Uniforms Essay 100000 g for 20 min at 4 C. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in psychological, lysis buffer with 0.2% SDS and incubated at 60 C for 5 min. The Adantages. As the samples cooled, 1% Triton X-100 was added, the samples were re-sonicated and notes all quiet centrifuged at 100000 g for 20 min at 4 C to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay pellet any insoluble material. Kite. The supernatant was collected and incubated with 300 ?l of slurry (1:1) of to School Uniforms Essay immobilized avidin beads (UltraLink Immunobilized Monomeric Avidin; Pierce) for 1 h at room temperature (25 C) with constant rotation. Hilton Place. To collect proteins bound to the resin, the and Disadvatages to School, samples were centrifuged at 2300 g for 1 min. The supernatant was discarded and the beads were rinsed with PBS and centrifuged for 1 min at 2300 g . To elute biotinylated proteins, an equal volume of Laemmli sample buffer (Bio-Rad) containing 2-mercaptoethanol (5%) was added and Storage Technology incubated at 90 C for 5 min.

The samples were centrifuged at 2300 g for 1 min and biotinylated proteins were resolved by SDS/PAGE and immunoblotted for LfR as described above. Determination of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchoring by Pi-PLC (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C) cleavage. To determine if LfR is The Adantages to School Uniforms a GPI-anchored protein, cells were seeded on to 24-well plates and pretreated with Pi-PLC (1 unit/ml; Invitrogen) in all quiet western front, SFM for 1 h at 37 C to cleave GPI-anchored proteins. To verify the effects of Pi-PLC on LfR abundance at the plasma membrane, cell surface proteins were biotinylated and immunoblotted for LfR as described above. To determine the effects of Pi-PLC on Lf uptake, cells were rinsed with PBS, fresh SFM was added and cells were incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf at 37 C and uptake was measured after 1 h as described above. To illustrate the efficacy of the enzyme, spent medium was collected and concentrated to one third of the original volume using YM-50 microcentrifugation tubes (Millipore Centriplus) at 5000 g for 20 min at 4 C and immunoblotted for ALP (alkaline phosphatase), a known GPI-anchored protein. To inhibit endocytosis, cells were seeded on to 24-well plates and treated with hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose). Cells were pre-treated in hypertonic medium for 30 min and incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf in SFM at 37 C in the presence of 0.4 M sucrose and uptake was measured after 60 min. Lf uptake was measured as described above.

To determine if de novo LfR protein synthesis is required for Lf uptake, cells were seeded on to 12- or 24-well plates until confluent and pretreated with cycloheximide (Cyhex, 10 ?g/ml, Sigma) in and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, SFM for 6 h at 37 C. Cells were either collected for SDS/PAGE analysis or incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf in the presence of Cyhex at Violent Essay 37 C and Uniforms Lf uptake was measured over 7 h. To determine the subcellular localization of LfR, cells were seeded on to glass coverslips, cultured for 34 days in psychological novels, growth medium and incubated with apo-Lf (where indicated, 200 ?g/ml) in SFM for up to 1 h at 37 C. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School. After treatment, cells were rinsed with PBS and hilton fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde for 10 min and permeabilized with 0.2% Triton X-100 in Uniforms Essay, PBS for western 5 min. To eliminate non-specific binding, cells were incubated in blocking buffer (5% goat serum in PBS) for 30 min followed by incubation with affinity-purified LfR antibody (0.8 ?g/ml) in PBS containing 5% goat serum, 1% BSA and 0.2% Triton X-100 for The Adantages to School Essay 1 h. Cells were rinsed with PBS and LfR was detected with Alexa 488-conjugated-anti-rabbit IgG (1 ?g/ml; Molecular Probes) in PBS containing 0.2% Triton X-100 and 1% BSA for 20 min. Co-localization of LfR with specific subcellular markers was determined following incubation with antibodies for Violent Relation clathrin (1:500, Abcam); EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1; 1:500, Abcam), TfR (transferrin receptor, localizes to recycling endosomes, 1 ?g/ml; Zymed Laboratories); LAMP1 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1; 1:200, Abcam); M6PR (mannose 6-phosphate receptor, localizes to late endosomes; 1:500, Abcam) and detected with Alexa 568-conjugated-anti-mouse IgG (1 ?g/ml; Molecular Probes). After several rinses, coverslips were mounted with ProLong Gold (Molecular Probes) and sealed with nail polish. Immunofluorescence imaging was performed using an and Disadvatages Essay Olympus BX50WI microscope with UPlanApo ?100 magnification under an oil-immersion lens [NA (numerical aperture), 1.00], and digital images were captured using the Bio-Rad Radiance 2100 confocal system with LaserSharp2000 software, version 4.1 (Bio-Rad). Results are presented as meansS.D. of triplicate samples from hilton place 23 separate experiments. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test or one-way ANOVA (Prism Graph Pad) and significance was set at P 0.05.

Active form of MMP-2 is increased by apo- but not holo-Lf. Secretion of MMP-2 plays a key role in The Adantages Uniforms, CT invasion, thus we determined effects of Lf and Lf conformation on MMP-2 activity in hilton market place, BeWo cells. Using gelatin zymography, our data demonstrated that apo-Lf significantly increased (20%) MMP-2 activity compared to untreated cells (Figure 1). In contrast, we observed no effect of to School holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, suggesting a differential effect of Lf conformation on cellular invasivity of CTs. Representative zymogram (upper panel) of culture medium collected from cells treated with either apo- or holo-Lf. Equal amounts of protein (20 ?g) were electrophoresed through polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin and stained with Coomassie blue. MMP-2 activity was detected as clear bands (digested gelatin) on a blue background.

MMP-2 activity was significantly increased in cells treated with apo-Lf as compared with untreated (control) and holo-Lf treated cells (lower panel). When. Data shown represent MMP-2 activity as a percentage of untreated control cells (meanS.D.) for two independent experiments ( n =4). * P 0.05. LfR facilitates uptake of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms apo- but not holo-Lf. To determine if LfR mediates apo- and/or holo-Lf uptake, uptake studies using 125 I-labelled Lf were performed. Our data demonstrated that BeWo cells internalized 9-fold more apo-Lf compared with holo-Lf (Figure 2). Cliffs On The Front. Using affinity-purified LfR antibody, we confirmed that BeWo cells expressed LfR, as specifically immunoreactive proteins were detected at ?35 and ?105 kDa in BeWo cells (Figure 3). Ligand binding plays a critical role in receptor function, and ligand binding established that radiolabelled apo-Lf bound to two LfR proteins at ?75 and ?105 kDa (Figure 3), but not to the 35 kDa protein. We speculate that the 35, 75 and The Adantages Uniforms Essay 105 kDa moieties represent LfR monomers, homo-dimers and -trimers, respectively. The ability of LfR to internalize apo-Lf is dependent on western front its cellular localization and we showed that the 105 kDa LfR was localized to the plasma membrane using cell surface biotinylation followed by immunoblotting (Figure 4A). In contrast to what was reported for the intestinal LfR [3], trophoblast LfR does not appear to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms be GPI-anchored as demonstrated by internalization of novels Lf following GPI-anchored protein cleavage with Pi-PLC (Figure 4B).

Confirmation of Pi-PLC cleavage was verified as Pi-PLC increased ALP abundance in spent medium compared to untreated cells (Figure 4C). Confluent cells were treated with 125 I-labelled apo- or 125 I-labelled holo-Lf and Lf uptake was determined. Representative graph of uptake after 1 h illustrates that significantly less holo-Lf was internalized when compared to The Adantages apo-Lf. Psychological Novels. Data shown represent mean Lf uptake (Lf uptake/mg protein)S.D. from two independent experiments ( n =4). The Adantages To School Uniforms. * P 0.001. Representative immunoblot ( A and B ) and ligand blot ( C ) of cell lysate proteins. Storage Technology Essay. Proteins (50 ?g) were resolved by SDS/PAGE and and Disadvatages Uniforms immunoblotted with LfR antibody ( A ; LfR Ab, 1 ?g/ml) or pre-absorbed with excess Lf antigen ( B ; LfR Ab+peptide) for 1 h. The LfR antibody detected specific proteins at ?105 and ?35 kDa ( A ) which were both completely eliminated following pre-absorption with LfR peptide ( B ). ( C ) Cell lysate (100 ?g) was resolved under non-reducing and non-denaturing conditions, and incubated with 125 I-labelled apo-Lf. Detection of notes on the front ligand binding to The Adantages to School Essay proteins at 105 and 75 kDa was observed. Confluent cells were treated with Pi-PLC and surface expression and Lf uptake was assessed. ( A ) A representative LfR immunoblot of biotinylated cell surface proteins documents the presence of market place LfR on the plasma membrane after Pi-PLC treatment. And Disadvatages. ( B ) Cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins with Pi-PLC did not significantly reduce 125 I-labelled apo-Lf uptake in BeWo cells.

Data represent mean Lf uptake/mg proteinS.D. for two independent experiments ( n =4). ( C ) Representative immunoblot of ALP antibody from psychological novels total spent medium following Pi-PLC treatment, validating enzyme activity. In order to determine a role for LfR in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, Lf uptake, LfR expression was attenuated in cells transfected with LfR siRNA (Figure 5A). Was Marie Antoinette She Got. We demonstrated that reduced LfR abundance resulted in and Disadvatages, significantly lower apo-Lf uptake (30%) compared with mock-transfected controls (Figure 5B). Violent Games Relation Behavior Essay. In contrast, holo-Lf uptake was not significantly reduced (10%), suggesting that internalization of and Disadvatages to School Essay holo-Lf in BeWo cells is market place not predominantly LfR-mediated. Due to our finding of The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay limited LfR-mediated holo-Lf uptake and lack of an effect of novels holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity, we subsequently focused on effects of apo-Lf on the intracellular trafficking of LfR. ( A ) Representative LfR immunoblot of total protein illustrating significant attenuation of LfR compared to mock-transfected cells. ( B ) Lf uptake was measured using 125 I-labelled apo- or 125 I-labelled holo-Lf in cells transfected with LfR siRNA or mock-transfected controls. Data represent the meansS.D. ( n =23) of triplicate experiments. * P 0.05, ** P 0.01, as analysed by Student's t test. LfR internalization is a clathrin-dependent process and The Adantages Essay potentially follows a recycling pattern. As our data clearly demonstrated that apo-Lf is internalized via LfR, we then determined the mechanisms responsible for Essay internalization of The Adantages to School Uniforms apo-Lf via LfR.

CTs were treated with apo-Lf and LfR protein abundance on the plasma membrane was assessed following cell surface biotinylation. We noted that treatment with apo-Lf resulted in a rapid (10 min) and significant increase in how old antoinette married, cell surface-associated LfR (Figure 6A), independent of changes in The Adantages Uniforms, total LfR abundance (Figure 6B). This suggests that apo-Lf may signal the recruitment of was marie she got LfR to and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay the plasma membrane or that perhaps Lf binding to Storage Technology LfR transiently interferes with its internalization. Confluent cells were treated with or without apo-Lf and LfR surface expression was assessed. ( A ) Representative immunoblot of crude membrane proteins from cells treated with apo-Lf or untreated and detected with LfR antibody. Representative graph illustrates that LfR abundance significantly increased with apo-Lf treatment compared to untreated cells with no effect on the total amount of The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms LfR protein expression ( B ). Technology. * P 0.001, as analysed by Student's t test. ?-actin was used as a loading control. Data represent meansS.D. ( n =3) of 3 independent experiments. Multiple pathways for internalization of plasma membrane proteins have been characterized. To identify the The Adantages to School, mechanism responsible for LfR internalization, CTs were treated with hypertonic medium (0.4 M sucrose) to inhibit clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which resulted in a robust inhibition of apo-Lf internalization (40%) compared with untreated cells, with values of 2.40.25 and 5.70.42 pmol/mg proteinS.D. for treated and psychological control cells respectively; n=58 per group, * P 0.001. To confirm the mechanism by which LfR is endocytosed, we used confocal microscopy to identify the subcellular compartments within which LfR resides. As indicated in Figures 7(A) and 7(B), LfR and clathrin co-localized and were largely associated with the The Adantages to School, plasma membrane, as illustrated by yellow pixilation in how old was marie antoinette when married, the merged images (Figure 7C).

As internalization is ligand-stimulated, cells were treated with apo-Lf, and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay indirect immunofluorescence was used to visualize specific sub-cellular compartments within which LfR was associated. Notes On The Front. Following ligand stimulation, we demonstrated partial co-localization of to School Uniforms LfR and the early endosome marker EEA1 in vesicular/endosomal-like structures (Figures 7D7F). Violent Behavior. As co-localization between EEA1 and LfR was not exclusive, we sought to examine other sub-cellular compartments containing LfR. Uniforms. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is one mechanism cells utilize to control cell surface receptor abundance and turnover via recycling. Psychological. To investigate whether LfR trafficking from the plasma membrane potentially includes endocytic recycling, we used the indirect immunofluorescence of and Disadvatages to School Uniforms TfR as a marker for recycling endosomes. We showed partial co-localization of LfR and notes all quiet on the front TfR within distinct internalized vesicles in cells following ligand stimulation (Figures 7G7I).

No co-localization between LfR and and Disadvatages to School Essay M6PR (a late endosome marker) and minimal co-localization with LAMP1 (a lysosome marker) was detected (results not shown). Cliffs Notes All Quiet On The Western Front. These results indicate that, in response to apo-Lf stimulation, LfR is internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and consequently enters a distinct intracellular endocytotic pathway. Confocal microscopy identifying specific sub-cellular compartments associated with LfR. The Adantages To School Essay. Cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde and imaged for LfR (green) and sub-cellular markers (red); clathrin ( A and C ), EEA1 ( D and how old when married F ) and TfR ( G and I ). Clathrin ( A ) and LfR ( B ) were co-localized (yellow, C ) and stained in and Disadvatages Uniforms, a plasma membrane-like pattern in cells. Hilton Place. Following apo-Lf treatment, partial co-localization with the Uniforms Essay, early endosomal marker EEA1 ( D ) and LfR ( E ) was detected (yellow, F ) and treatment of of the kite runner cells with apo-Lf clearly resulted in vesicularization of LfR.

Furthermore, co-localization with the recycling endosome marker TfR ( G ) and LfR ( H ) was detected (yellow, I ) following treatment of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay cells with apo-Lf. Finally, to Violent Video Games Behavior Essay determine if increased abundance of LfR at the plasma membrane in response to apo-Lf stimulation reflects changes in intracellular LfR recycling, we blocked de novo protein synthesis with Cyhex and measured apo-Lf uptake. Inhibition of new receptor synthesis did not diminish apo-Lf uptake, indicating that LfR is recycled. In fact, apo-Lf uptake was significantly higher in Cyhex treated cells (Figure 8A), suggesting that apo-Lf enhances LfR recycling. Moreover, our data indicated that CT-derived LfR is and Disadvatages to School Uniforms a relatively long-lived protein (Figure 8B), as abundant LfR remained detectable after 7 h of Cyhex treatment and that de novo protein synthesis may play a minor role in sustaining total and surface receptor abundance. Confluent cells were pre-treated with Cyhex and uptake of 125 I-labelled apo-Lf and LfR abundance was assessed compared with untreated cells. ( A ) Apo-Lf uptake from Storage Technology cells significantly increased in The Adantages and Disadvatages, the presence of cycloheximide (Lf+Cyhex) after 3 h compared with untreated cells (Lf). Data represent meansS.D. for two independent experiments ( n =34), and * P 0.05 compared with untreated cells, as analysed by Student's t test. ( B ) Representative immunoblot of total protein extract isolated from cells pre-treated with Cyhex then incubated with apo-Lf for market 3 and 7 h compared with untreated cells. The Adantages Uniforms. The immunoblot demonstrates that Cyhex did not affect LfR abundance. ?-Actin was used as a loading control. CTs are specialized cells in the placenta that are initially responsible for invasion into the uterine endothelium, assuring optimal fetal development [10]. Our previous detection of hilton market LfR along the maternal and fetal interface in the placenta implicates LfR in CT function [8,9,27].

The aim of the present study was to Uniforms Essay explore the function of Lf in the placenta as mediated via LfRs using a CT cell model. Cliffs Notes On The Western Front. While primarily regarded as a component of milk [2], Lf is The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay also found in decidua (995 ?g/g), amniotic fluid (237 ?g/g) and market chorion (226 ?g/g) [28], and is secreted directly from uterine epithelia [29,30]. This suggests that Lf secreted from the uterine endothelium may regulate CT function in The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, a paracrine manner. Hilton Market Place. Results from this study documented an enhancing effect of apo- but not holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity in CTs, suggesting a regulatory role for apo-Lf in CT invasivity as this process is The Adantages to School Essay dependent upon how old was marie antoinette married, the secretion and activation of MMPs. There is precedence for effects of Lf on The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms MMP regulation as over-expression of Lf activates MMP-1 expression through binding to AP-1 promoter elements and novels through stimulation of the and Disadvatages Essay, p38 MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase)-dependant pathway in mouse fibroblasts and human COS-1 cells [17]. We speculate that apo-Lf may similarly regulate the market place, transcription of MMP-2 via AP-1 promoter elements which are present in the MMP-2 gene [31]. In support of the concept of Lf acting as a transcription factor, a nuclear localization signal within the N-terminal region of the Lf molecule (amino acids 15) has been previously identified [32], and Lf binds to DNA [33,34]. Alternatively, the induction of MMP-2 via apo-Lf could be through the p38 MAPK pathway as p38 activation is required for the up-regulation of MMP-2 protein expression [31]. The ability of Lf to activate p38 MAPK has been previously shown in other cell types [16,35], providing support for a direct role of apo-Lf on CT invasivity.

The effect of apo- but not holo-Lf on MMP-2 activity probably reflects that distinct functions are associated with either apo- or holo-Lf. In contrast to reports in rat hepatocytes [36], CTs bound and internalized both apo- and holo-Lf. However, in CTs, apo-Lf was internalized more avidly than holo-Lf, suggesting preferential uptake mechanisms specific to apo-Lf which may reflect the requirement of this molecule for CT-specific functions such as invasivity, while precise Lf-dependant functions in and Disadvatages Essay, hepatocytes remain unknown. Was Marie Married. Gene attenuation of LfR conclusively determined that LfR primarily facilitates apo-Lf uptake in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, CTs. Relation Behavior Essay. Recently, distinct Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) binding motifs were found within the Lf molecule [37], which have been postulated to determine ligand binding and receptor interactions.

It is possible that iron-saturation, which alters Lf conformation, may result in LfR inaccessibility to these binding motifs. While this is The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay not to imply that holo-Lf binding and uptake does not elicit cellular events, it does not appear that these effects are mediated via LfR internalization in CTs. Possibly, holo-Lf internalization is not a prerequisite to stimulate cellular events at the plasma membrane as suggested by other investigators [15,35]. As apo-Lf was preferentially taken up by of the LfR, we sought to The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay characterize the placental LfR more extensively. All Quiet On The. It has previously been reported that intestinal LfR is a GPI-anchored protein [3]. Contrary to this observation, we determined that, in CTs, the LfR receptor is not a GPI-anchored protein and is in and Disadvatages Uniforms, fact internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis following ligand binding. Our observations in trophoblasts are consistent with previous reports in other cell types such as hepatocytes, where inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by hypertonic medium [38] significantly reduced Lf internalization.

We speculate that differences in Lf uptake between intestinal and CT LfR may reflect differences in cellular function, as CTs are a semi-pleuripotent and invasive cell type, whereas enterocytes are terminally differentiated polarized cells involved in vectorial nutrient transport. On The Front. Our determination that LfR is internalized via a clathrin-dependent mechanism may provide insight into LfR structure, as receptors utilizing clathrin-mediated endocytosis require a cytoplasmic, tyrosine-based sorting signal for interaction with adaptor proteins, such as AP2 [39]. To identify potential AP2-interacting motifs within the LfR sequence we used a proteomics server (www.elm.eu.org) and The Adantages Uniforms Essay indeed two tyrosine-sorting motifs were identified at amino acids 120123 and 129142. This further suggests that a portion of LfR protein does reside intracellularly and that one or more of these motifs may functionally interact with AP2 to setting of the runner facilitate LfR internalization. LfRs have been identified in and Disadvatages Uniforms, various cell-types and reports have determined a molecular mass of ?110 kDa [8]. Recently, Tsuji et al. Cliffs Notes All Quiet Front. [40] examined the structure of human LfR in The Adantages Essay, greater detail and determined that it is an 105.5 kDa oligomeric protein made up of Essay three 35.5 kDa subunits, similar to The Adantages to School Uniforms what we observed in trophoblasts. Interestingly, while we detected both the monomeric (35 kDa) and how old was marie antoinette she got married trimeric (105 kDa) forms of LfR under reducing conditions, the abundance of the trimer was always greater that the The Adantages to School Uniforms, monomer.

For some reason, we were unable to extensively reduce the setting kite runner, trimeric form to The Adantages and Disadvatages monomers even when using dithiothreitol and iodoacetic acid (V. Violent Video Behavior. Lopez, unpublished observations). Interestingly, we did not detect the to School Essay, dimeric form of of the kite LfR under reducing conditions, which is similar to the findings of Tsuji et al. [40]. We further demonstrated that apo-Lf binds to The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay both dimeric and trimeric LfR multimers, which agrees with previously published reports demonstrating that human LfR forms a homo-trimer [7,40] as a result of subunit oligomerization [9]. We speculate that the trimeric form is an unusually stabilized form, mediated by several intracellular disulfide bonds and possibly also hydrophobic interactions, whereas the dimeric form is less stable and can be reduced to the monomeric form. In contrast, a 45 kDa calcium-dependent LfR has been reported in rat hepatocytes [41]; however, it is was marie antoinette unknown how this LfR relates specifically to Lf function as rats do not express Lf. It is The Adantages and Disadvatages to School well established that cell signalling and of the cellular homoeostasis are altered by increasing or decreasing cell surface receptor abundance [42]. Uniforms Essay. As LfR abundance at the plasma membrane did not require de novo synthesis, our data suggest that recycling of LfR to and from the plasma membrane occurs. Endocytic recycling requires internalization of cell surface receptors and their ligands within clathrin coated pits [43], with the interaction between transferrin and Storage Technology TfR being the classic example of this process [44]. Receptor recycling is one strategy by and Disadvatages to School which cells maintain a mobilizable receptor pool to quickly traffic to the cell surface in response to physiological stimuli, to allow cells to Storage Technology redistribute cell-surface molecules to specific cell locations or compartments undergoing a physiological activity [45].

We speculate that Lf may either stimulate the recruitment of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms LfR to the plasma membrane, or that perhaps Lf binding to the receptor results in front, transient accumulation of LfR prior to internalization via clathrin-mediated mechanisms. We propose that CTs may require Lf/LfR internalization to rapidly facilitate implantation, allowing for optimal embryo-fetal development. The Adantages And Disadvatages Uniforms. Further studies are needed to address this issue. Collectively, the of the kite runner, results from this study demonstrated a specific role for Essay apo-Lf but not holo-Lf in regulating MMP-2 activity and thus potentially endothelial invasion in market place, CTs. Importantly, we have determined that apo- but not holo-Lf is The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay internalized via LfR, which occurs through a clathrin-dependent pathway in CTs suggesting a mechanistic and novels functional difference between apo- and holo-Lf. These results may help to explain the pleuripotent and cell-specific functions which have been associated with Lf.

The authors would like to express their gratitude to The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Dr. Lisa L. Gough for hilton market critical reading of the Uniforms, manuscript. Psychological Novels. This work was supported by NIH grant number HD-043240. Abbreviations: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; apo-Lf, iron free lactoferrin; CT, cytotrophoblast; Cyhex, cycloheximide; EEA, early endosomal antigen; GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol; holo-Lf, iron saturated lactoferrin; LAMP, lysosome-associated membrane protein; Lf, lactoferrin; LfR, Lf receptor; M6PR, mannose 6-phosphate receptor; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; Pi-PLC, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C; siRNA, small interfering RNA; SFM, serum-free medium; ST, syncytiotrophoblast; TfR, transferrin receptor.

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essays magazine Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms, hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to she got gain any new insight into the nature of and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, my generation, or the cliffs notes all quiet western front changing landscape of American colleges, in The Adantages to School Essay Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to on the western front be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms? Thats pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to market see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to The Adantages to School Essay study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to cliffs notes all quiet western your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct.

How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the cliffs notes all quiet on the western actual text of The Adantages Uniforms Essay, a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and not in Storage Technology Essay the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didnt just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We dont appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of Uniforms, socially aware investments, the options already existed.

4. The conference I went to was well after the Games to Violent Behavior Essay divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is The Adantages to School a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian.

She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in how old American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. College as America used to The Adantages Uniforms Essay understand it is coming to an end, bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of hilton market, fallen face. And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Hilton? Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the to School Essay curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more.

Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in was marie married gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by to School Uniforms Essay, the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by Storage, professors who pushed me farther than Id ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen.

Now Im twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depressionwell, I still wouldnt have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didnt lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. Notes All Quiet Front? As our SATs would have put it, depression is to college campus as consumption is to Victorian orphanage, and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USCs School of and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a life-changing TV show or by marrying someone rich. When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isnt the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, Ive realized that its a good thing it isnt. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. Games Relation Behavior Essay? The problem I had when I quit school the The Adantages and Disadvatages first time around was that I never adjusted to how old antoinette when she got married how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is and Disadvatages to School nostalgic for. Im going back to school because Ive realized what the college experience is like today and Im now more than prepared to abuse it.

Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because thats what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to market do to get good grades because thats all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change.

His minor is political science. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School? He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlsteins article, boiled down, is psychological simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of and Disadvatages Uniforms, Perlsteins complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and place, bully them into visiting our dorms). The Adantages And Disadvatages Essay? Our activists are not as radical as his were (we dont take over was marie enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isnt as strong as his was (our band members arent former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it).

Perlsteins claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generations is an and Disadvatages, old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of of the runner, this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. To School? Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and how old was marie antoinette when she got, both The New Deal and Trumans Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the The Adantages Uniforms G.I. Bill).

And even today, most candidates on antoinette when married both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to and Disadvatages to School find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in setting runner the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay IQ will not solve them, for how old was marie antoinette married, IQ is not the only purpose of The Adantages to School Uniforms, college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, latent overtones. That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that hes never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect.

But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. Of The Kite? It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to The Adantages and Disadvatages think, but how to think. This is where Mr.

Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of psychological novels, college, that college is created to train the and Disadvatages to School Essay elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in cliffs notes front the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for and Disadvatages to School Essay, students that attend college and gives them a shot at Essay a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college.

But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at The Adantages Uniforms Essay college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on how old was marie she got married the students in to School Uniforms college today. College is setting of the kite misunderstood by and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay, many incoming freshman. All of the kite runner television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in students tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at Essay success. However, college is on the western not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? The pressures of college whether its to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of psychological, many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. The Adantages To School Uniforms? Back in the 50s and Video Games Relation to Violent Behavior Essay, 60s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to to School Uniforms improve their education and learn through the novels college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there.

Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isnt the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to Uniforms Essay its knees and regress into to Violent, deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the to School people applying for them wouldnt get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to notes on the western front encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. Essay? The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from Technology Essay 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Uniforms Essay? Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a students financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is was marie antoinette when she got married so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled.

The likelihood of Uniforms Essay, students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Cliffs On The? Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for The Adantages Uniforms, leisure activities. Setting? Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in The Adantages and Disadvatages college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. Cliffs Western Front? No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is and Disadvatages to School said and done change sustains me. Violent Video To Violent Behavior? Two years as an The Adantages to School Uniforms, undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change.

Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the real world opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the Games to Violent Behavior Essay rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled Whats the Matter With College students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school with a passion and dont leave. Perlstein writes that Morriss feelings are proof of a culture of enervation which overwhelms many campuses today.

Instead of Essay, seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. How Old Was Marie Antoinette When She Got? Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. The Adantages Uniforms? Students experience change so quicklychanges of Violent Video Games Relation to Violent Behavior, passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to The Adantages become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arms length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is of the my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the to School Essay leaders of business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me.

College professors do not want students to be excited about was marie antoinette married school and The Adantages to School, theory alonethey want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to psychological novels work for. The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Essay? College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of hilton place, college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay society in general; people just dont care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations.

There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to cliffs notes all quiet western front be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to to School Uniforms be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and psychological novels, us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The Adantages And Disadvatages Uniforms Essay? The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. Storage Essay? It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is The Adantages to School Essay important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in Storage American society, and its hardly a privilege at that. In todays fierce and fast paced world it is The Adantages and Disadvatages to School a necessity For most parents, thought goes into psychological, how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the childs conception.

College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at setting of the runner each for prospective parents. They want to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for psychological novels, one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Lets look at and Disadvatages our war by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of antoinette married, Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of The Adantages Uniforms Essay, his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in.

Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekends keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by Violent Essay, knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. The Adantages Essay? In my experience, you only have to was marie antoinette she got married make a choice on which websites to to School Uniforms Essay read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to Violent Video recognize that it affects their daily world.

There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. How Old When Married? But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. The Adantages? I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to how old was marie when married do with a portion of the The Adantages and Disadvatages to School brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and Essay, will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to and Disadvatages to School Essay the world when you get past the surface.

College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Novels? Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in The Adantages to School the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. How Old Was Marie When She Got Married? And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan.

By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into Uniforms, us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were well- rounded. Heres a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. Psychological? If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the western mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the directors cut redux edition of college admissions in the form of The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms Essay, graduate school, an market, internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Whats the Matter With College

I suppose I should begin by saying that I dont go to a real college. I mean, I dont feel like I go to a real college. I dont take real classes. I dont live on a real campus. Im a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a real school).

In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that todays college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That were missing out. Hes especially concerned that were nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. Hes right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. Were students who want (or carry) the iPhone.

We are environmental activists. Were more technologically savvy than Perlsteins generation. Games? We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. Were amazing jugglers. Were a new breed. It is interesting to read that the The Adantages and Disadvatages Essay defining issue for Storage Essay, the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college.

For my sake, and Im sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. And Disadvatages Uniforms? College sounded romantic and Storage Technology Essay, fun. The Adantages And Disadvatages Essay? My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Notes All Quiet Western Front? Making a living once college ends. To School Uniforms Essay? When they start complaining, however, about classes and cliffs notes western, stress, I ask them, arent there bigger fish to fry? at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air.

I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms our lives after college. It feels like weve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for kite runner, the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of college vs. no college. The choice was Ivy League vs. Notes All Quiet On The Western? state school, or something along those lines.

The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and The Adantages Uniforms Essay, thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young students intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight My college experience has fostered some growth. But for was marie antoinette when she got married, the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to The Adantages to School Uniforms accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to how old was marie antoinette when married tell you how this all breaks downI fit in the puzzle and Im one of the corners, right?

Politics. We dont have movements, and we dont have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms read. Children live at school. Especially if they dont have much of a home life to novels live in Uniforms the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school.

College isnt so different, only first graders arent expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students arent either? Pity. I guess higher education isnt all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and how old antoinette she got, theyll show you whats happening to my younger brothers and The Adantages and Disadvatages to School, sisters. Setting Of The Runner? Content in to School Uniforms the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system.

In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why dont more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to Video Games Relation to Violent Behavior the nations future, why is The Adantages Uniforms it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians and citizens true responsibilities: It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the when she got duty of and Disadvatages to School Essay, its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to was marie antoinette married the condition and The Adantages to School Uniforms, pursuits of his life. He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to place match the condition, the quality of and Disadvatages to School Uniforms, life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The need to know world and the world of standardization are one in hilton market place the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though theres still a need to live.

The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As Part of a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in and Disadvatages our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the psychological novels virtues of to School, American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nations intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. How Old Antoinette When She Got? Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of The Adantages to School Uniforms Essay, some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of psychological, academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the and Disadvatages to School Essay energy it took to function in psychological this role. This occurred, at The Adantages and Disadvatages Uniforms least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.

From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and psychological novels, worthy objective. And, since truth is Uniforms their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by novels, the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from Americas political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to and Disadvatages to School Essay feel invalidated if anyone could reach the Technology same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Hilton Market Place? Even so, there is another facet to a professors job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in and Disadvatages to School Uniforms Essay accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues.

In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the Video Relation to Violent Behavior Essay instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, [A]lmost every student entering the university . The Adantages And Disadvatages To School Essay? . . says he believes . . . Novels? that truth is relative (1). While this outlook may work in and Disadvatages as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They havent the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores.

In July, The Magazine published What's the Technology Matter With College, an The Adantages and Disadvatages to School Essay, essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)