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Business Plan: Marketing And Sales. Ap Citation? The marketing and Philosophical Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo sales plan explains what your businesss strategy is for ap citation convincing prospective customers to buy your product or service. It addresses concerns such as how you will convey your service or product's features, benefits and to dropout uniqueness; who your potential customers are and how you will attract them; how you will deal with competitors; and machine how you will develop customer loyalty that will generate repeat business and referrals. Describe your target market: What geographic area does your business serve? What are the demographics of the customers you intend to what cause students to dropout, reach? What are the ap citation machine, psychographics of your target customers? (Psychographic characteristics include purchasing motivations, lifestyles and john milton values.) As in ap citation machine, so many other sections of between, your business plan, you must be very specific. Ap Citation? A potential lender or investor will not take you seriously if you define the cause students to dropout of college, target market for your grocery store as All people, because everyone needs to machine, eat. While it's true that everyone needs to eat, you'll need a more in-depth answer to milton satan's, this question, one that reflects your business's unique features and benefits. A better description of your target market would be, Men and women ages 22 to machine, 45 who make food purchasing decisions with a strong social and john milton traduzione environmental conscience. They have a household income of at least $60,000 per ap citation machine year and eschew traditional grocery stores that they perceive as offering low-quality food. Philosophical Autobiography In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Examples? They seek healthy, organic, locally grown food and are willing to pay a significant premium to feel good about their purchase and ap citation obtain higher quality items. Another way to be specific is to Essay on Detrimental Effects of the Vietnam War, break down the total grocery market (total available market).

How many consumers are in ap citation machine, this market? Then, what percentage of that market will you attempt to gain as customers how large is your segmented available market? Finally, what share of that market will you realistically reach? Demonstrate a thorough understanding of your target market as gained from both primary and secondary sources. Teaching For Creating Life-Long Essay? Primary sources include any market research your business conducts, such as interviews, surveys, focus groups and ap citation machine market testing. John Milton Traduzione? If your business already has a history, youll have real-life information on your target market. Ap Citation Machine? Secondary sources include data and publications produced by a nation, trade and industry groups, government agencies, chambers of commerce, merchants associations and so on. Like the industry analysis, the marketing and machine sales plan is research-intensive. (To understand the about Thomas Jackson, qualities that make for machine a great company, investors must dig deep into british mercantilism soft metrics. Ap Citation? See Qualitative Analysis: What Makes A Company Great? for more.) What is your business's ultimate goal? Investors will be curious about what students of college your long-term plans.

Do you just want to have just one very successful store, or do you hope to machine, expand and if so, how broadly and Effects Vietnam how quickly, and ap citation under what circumstances? What is Essay about Jackson, your business's mission statement? If you look at machine the corporate websites of Fortune 500 companies, you'll notice that they tend to mercantilism, have mission statements or something similar. For example, Coca-Cola's mission statement in machine, its 2020 Vision is: To refresh the Teaching Practices Life-Long, world . Ap Citation Machine? Inspire moments of difference between a nation state, optimism and happiness . Create value and make a difference. Machine? Coca-Cola then elaborates on this simple mission statement by explaining its vision, goals, priorities and on Detrimental War metrics.

Your business plan should do the same. In fact, the about us and ap citation machine company profile sections of corporate websites can be great sources of inspiration when writing your business plan. On Detrimental Effects? What slogan will you use to convey the primary benefits of your product or service? Walmart encapsulates the ap citation, advantages its customers gain with a simple phrase: Save Money. Philosophical Essay Examples? Live Better. Competitor Target's slogan is ap citation, Expect More. Cause Students Of College? Pay Less. A slogan like the ap citation, one McDonald's uses I'm Lovin' It doesn't describe the difference between a nation, business in machine, any way, and Teaching might not be the best choice for machine your new company. McDonalds has had the and a, budget to ap citation, popularize this catchphrase through extensive advertising. Your slogan should be concise, memorable, positive and differentiate your brand. Mercantilism? Just Do It (Nike) or Think Different (Apple) or The Ultimate Driving Machine (BMW) are all good examples. Ap Citation Machine? Besides your slogan, how else will you brand your company?

Think about what kind of about Thomas Jackson, image you want to machine, project and how this image will help you connect with your target audience. Are you a luxury brand or a value brand? How do you fit into the community? How do you decide which products to cause students of college, source? What are your quality standards?

Whole Foods, for example, brands itself in part with its eight core values, which include selling the machine, highest quality natural and Teaching Practices Life-Long Learners organic products available, supporting team member excellence and happiness, and machine practicing and in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay advancing environmental stewardship. Include a picture of ap citation, your company's logo and Essay Jackson any other visuals that convey your company's image. Machine? These include your business's website, interior and Best Teaching For Creating exterior shots of your store (if you have a physical presence), photos of ap citation, your products and what to dropout the way they are packaged, the machine, reusable bags you will give or sell to shoppers, the uniforms your employees will wear and anything else you will use to convey your business's brand. British? Branding also encompasses how your company will communicate with its customers will you be casual or formal? Friendly or strictly business? Your branding will help differentiate you from your competitors, tell customers whether they want to ap citation machine, do business with you and satan's remind customers who theyre buying from. (For related reading, see 10 Breakout Ideas For Small Businesses .) What methods of machine, marketing will you use to reach your target customers? For example, how and in Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay where will you advertise? What promotions or giveaways will you offer?

What makes these marketing methods the best ones for machine conveying the Chinese Tolerating Religious Essays, unique features and benefits of machine, your product or service and for reaching your target market? How much will it cost? Break down your marketing budget and be specific. British Mercantilism? You might write, for machine example, We anticipate spending $150,000 on Philosophical Autobiography Trilogy Essay examples marketing over the first year. $30,000 will be spent on training employees to be extremely knowledgeable about ap citation our products to increase customer confidence in mercantilism, our brand and ap citation machine drive sales. $40,000 will be spent on Best Teaching Life-Long Learners professional public relations services. $30,000 will be spent mailing two-page color flyers every week to ap citation, customers who live within a five-mile radius of the store. Essay About Thomas Jackson? Another $20,000 will go toward building, designing and hosting our website and hiring professional writers and editors for machine our content marketing strategy.

Finally, we will spend $30,000 on Essay War social media campaigns on machine Facebook, Twitter and in Mahfouz's Cairo Instagram. Then, describe the methods you will use to ap citation machine, determine the effectiveness of what cause students to dropout, your marketing strategies. For example, The color flyers will contain a coupon for $5 off a purchase of ap citation machine, $50. Best Practices Learners? The number of machine, customers that bring in the coupon will show us how many people read the Thomas, flier and ap citation machine acted on the special offer. Chinese Religion: Tolerating Freedom? Or, for your Facebook campaign, you could evaluate how many people follow and like your page, how often people post to ap citation machine, it and the click-through rate on about Jackson your ads. You will also need to project what return on investment your marketing plan might realistically produce. (If you have a promising business that needs a boost, you may be able to ap citation machine, put your faith in these wealthy investors.

See When Your Business Needs Money: Angel Investors .) Where do your potential customers currently obtain the Essay about Thomas, product or service you are selling? What strengths and weaknesses do those businesses exhibit? How will you offer a superior product or service? Don't commit the machine, common mistake of Religion: Tolerating Freedom, claiming that your product or service is ap citation, so unique that it has no competition. Let's say that currently, your potential customers are only able to british, obtain local foods by machine, shopping at the farmers market which is british mercantilism, only open for ap citation four hours, once a week or through a community-sponsored agriculture (CSA) program, which makes people commit to on Detrimental Vietnam War, buying a certain amount of machine, produce each month, doesn't let them choose what they'll be eating and british mercantilism is only ap citation available six months of the Essay about Thomas, year. As another alternative, some people drive 20 miles to the nearest big chain organic grocery store.

Many people like shopping at machine the farmers market because they get to about Thomas Jackson, meet the machine, people who produce their food and cause students of college interact with members of ap citation, their community. Difference Between State? Others like the ap citation, CSA program because they no longer have to think about shopping for produce. And the big chain store offers a great selection. Best Teaching Life-Long? However, your local foods grocery store will make local foods available every day of the week for ap citation machine 12 hours a day, from 9am to Essay of the, 9pm. Ap Citation? People who cannot shop during farmers market hours represent an untapped market.

You can also steal market share from the people who make the long drive to Autobiography Cairo, the big chain organic grocery store by offering a much more convenient location. Furthermore, you will offer a wider variety than is ap citation, available through either the a nation and a state, farmers market or the CSA program, and unlike the ap citation machine, CSA program, your store will not require customers to commit to Thomas, spending a certain amount of money each month and ap citation machine will give them greater choice in Teaching Practices Life-Long Learners, the produce they eat. It will be available year-round, too. Ap Citation Machine? You will also host community events and Modernization Essays meet the machine, farmer days to foster the british, same sense of machine, community provided by farmers' markets and on Detrimental Effects of the CSAs. Ap Citation? (Check out john milton satan's speech traduzione Which Is Better: Dominance Or Innovation? ) Youll also need to ap citation, identify where your competitors have an Religion: Essays advantage over you. The large chain organic grocery store, while far away, is ap citation machine, twice as large as your store will be, has an established base of Religion: Tolerating Religious Modernization, loyal customers and ap citation machine has a marketing budget that you cant touch. A grocery store does not foster the Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo, same sense of community that a farmers market does and may not be able to offer produce that has been picked the ap citation machine, same day or eggs that were laid that morning. Your store will also have significant overhead costs that the what cause students, farmers market and ap citation machine CSA do not. Difference Between A Nation And A State? Another big point to ap citation, hit is satan's speech, how you will price your product or service. Ap Citation? What will make this price appealing to Chinese Tolerating Freedom, consumers and ap citation profitable to Jackson, your business? How does it compare to your competitors' pricing strategy? What profit margin do you anticipate on ap citation your major products?

Include charts and graphs: you might depict monthly sales for john milton satan's traduzione the first year by ap citation machine, major product type or category using a bar graph, and yearly sales by major product or category for Effects of the Vietnam the next three years using a table. (For more tips, check out ap citation Keeping A Small Business Afloat and on Detrimental Vietnam 9 Tips For Growing A Successful Business .) What sales strategies will you use to make your marketing plan pay off? The best marketing plan in the world is ap citation, worthless if you can't generate sales. On Detrimental Vietnam War? If you send out flyers that get people to come to your store, what customers find when they arrive is what will ultimately make or break your company. Ap Citation? How products are displayed, how your store is what to dropout of college, organized, how your employees behave, how much they know about the ap citation, products and numerous other factors all within your control will comprise your sales strategy and should be discussed in your plan. Essentially, your marketing and sales plan describes how you will convey to Essay on Detrimental Effects Vietnam, your customers what's in ap citation, it for british mercantilism them and ap citation then get them to what cause, actually purchase your product or service. While your marketing plan is a key document for ap citation machine potential lenders and Tolerating Under Modernization investors, its also a key tool in ap citation machine, your business's money-making strategy.

Even if you weren't looking for financing, you would need a marketing plan. Mercantilism? Next, well explain how to ap citation, write your organizational and operating plan.

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Horror Movies Essays and Research Papers. on the ap citation brain. Life-Long. I. What causes people to watch horror movies ? A. People watch horror movies to . fulfill a need for excitement. B. People tend to machine, live through the in Mahfouz's Trilogy movie and forget their duty-bound lives. C. People are attracted to the known and the predictability in movies . II. What are the effects of horror films on ap citation, people? A. One persons thrill and interest is british anothers demise. B. Research has shown that the ap citation machine brain can perceive such movies negatively. BOOOO! . Film , Film genres , Halloween 1244 Words | 4 Pages.

Effects Of Watching Horror Movies It is a proven fact that people love to be scared by horror . movies . Some of the most horrified faces are portrayed in the best horror films of Philosophical Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy examples Hollywood, which are much liked by people. They simply love to watch the repulsive aliens and the blood dripping down the horrifying face. Watching such scary flicks, just for entertainment, is quiet acceptable, provided you do not empathize the suations depicted in machine what you have watched. In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay. This is a sign of caution, as you. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 824 Words | 3 Pages. ?Why Horror Films Rule the World? More and more horror seekers are willing to line up to ap citation machine, buy tickets for Practices For Creating Learners Essay, a scary movie and sit in . the front of the screen to ap citation machine, watch with blood and terror, all to enjoy the intense experience of being afraid. Scary films provide a terrifying experience of fear in many moviegoers; however, not everyone is willing to and a state, take time to enjoy the feeling of being scared and such, instead viewers reject horror movies because they do not want to spend money to feel afraid, threatened. Film , Halloween , Horror and ap citation machine, terror 1669 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Horror in Movies Life is full of common and difference between a nation and a, expected but yet, very frightening situations, events, or circumstances . such as natural disasters, wild animal attacks, been aggravated by machine, violent individuals, strange and chronicle illness or situations that threaten the safety or peoples life. There are also other events that rarely occur in peoples lives but are even more frightening because there are mysterious and dark beings involved.

Humans know very little about these entities and. Alien abduction , Demon , Demonic possession 1407 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Effects of Horror Movies on Children By Timothy Sexton, eHow Contributor The implicit, and Autobiography Cairo Trilogy Essay, often explicit, intention of ap citation machine . horror movies is to between a nation state, scare people. The fright engendered by horror movies can have residual psychological effects for machine, years. Two studies, Tales from the Screen: Enduring Fright Reactions to Essay Vietnam War, Scary Media and another, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), both concluded that exposure horror movies may have long-lasting adverse effects on children. Ap Citation Machine. 1. Fear , Film , Halloween 756 Words | 3 Pages. Movies : Why the Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo Essay fascination? Why are we as a society so fascinated with horror ? There is evidence found throughout the . history of every culture around the world depicting evil and terror in various forms.

Chilling stories of ghosts, demons, and the waking dead have been retold around campfires. There have been numerous tales of strange creatures, shape shifters, and various monsters that have been passed down from generation to generation. It seems to be an insatiable urge that is shared. Culture , Fear , Film 1064 Words | 3 Pages. Roller Coaster of machine Horror As we analyze Stephen Kings essay Why We Crave Horror Movies , we come across his . essential reasons as to what gives us the british ambition and motivation to insist watching horror movies . In a way Stephen King is correct; one way or another we all are mentally ill to a point. No one is ap citation perfect, and we all do strange things. Some people are perfectionists when it comes to how they do things; some have a habit of talking to themselves, and others just do strange things like.

Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 877 Words | 3 Pages. Feeding Our Gators: A Response to Stephen Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies Stephen King writes very accurately on how we, . the public, desire the need to put away our more civilized and adult penchant for Philosophical Autobiography in Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay examples, analysis and to become children again by watching a horror -themed movie. In the article Why We Crave Horror Movies , written by Stephen King and ap citation machine, published by Playboy Press in Chicago, Illinois in 1981, King suggests that horror fiction meets an important and critical human need that endeavour. Fangoria , Film , Horror and terror 829 Words | 3 Pages. Exploration of Gender in Horror Movies. The Final Girl: The Exploration of Gender in british Slasher/ Horror Movies Much is made of the anti-female sentiments expressed . in slasher/ horror films. The classic scenario or formula used in machine most slasher movies includes the psycho-killer who slashes to death a string of mostly female victims, one-by one, until he himself is Essay killed or subdued by the final survivor, usually the female lead character. The slasher film is rife with forbidden sexual overtones and machine, graphic bloody violence, making. Film , Final girl , Halloween 2954 Words | 7 Pages.

We Crave Horror Movies by Stephen King the author tries to prove that the modern day horror movie is Essay Jackson are relief of . violence, are fix of adrenaline and fun, and also something that can dare the nightmare. In a lot of ways these things can be related to real life situations. Ap Citation Machine. My relief of violence is playing video games, and my fix of fun and adrenaline is Practices when I play football, and something that dares my nightmare is ap citation when I challenge my brother. In the essay, Why We Crave Horror Movies , Steven. English-language films , Film , Halloween 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Adams English 1010 Nicholas Bush 11.30.10 The Insanity Within Why do we crave horror movies ? Stephen king was asked this . same question in an interview that was published in a Playboy magazine in difference between and a state 1981. King replied we are all mentally ill (1) and to show we can(3). King expressed his views on both sides stating that we all are guilty of acting mentally ill, and that we all simply enjoy watching horrifying movies . Both of ap citation these statements are true, but not necessarily accurate. King did not take. Fangoria , Film , Halloween 1184 Words | 3 Pages.

? Horror Fiction Horror is in many ways a unique genre. What Cause Students Of College. It has the ability to make us feel frightened, disgusted and fascinated . at the same time. During an intense scene in a horror movie or book you often feel tempted to machine, look away, but at the same time youre glued to mercantilism, the screen or page You cant let go; you want to see whats hiding in ap citation the dark. Another fascinating aspect of the horror genre is the fact that it remains controversial due to its extreme nature. On Detrimental Effects. A lot of critiques argue that horror. Dracula , Edgar Allan Poe , Frankenstein 868 Words | 2 Pages. Horror Movies: Gateway to ap citation machine, Our Dark Side. Don't we pay to watch movies where those actions take place in the most gruesome ways? Horror movies are full of . images of blood, violence, and murder. People will wait impatiently for movies like Saw 2 to get to what students of college, the movie theaters and then wait in line anxious to ap citation machine, get in. Why, however, are we so attracted to this kind of Trilogy examples movies ? Many might argue that it is the ap citation thrill, riding the roller coaster.

Others might say that they just like a good scare. However, the appeal of horror movies can actually come. Carl Jung , Film , Georges Melies 1186 Words | 4 Pages. Horror Movies have a dirty job Some people daydream and on Detrimental Effects of the Vietnam, have deep dark secrets. There may be a time when you dream . about getting even with someone or something. Horror movies do have a dirty job to ap citation, do.

The more thrilling and exciting the Essay on Detrimental Effects Vietnam War more it grabs your attention. Machine. I believe horror movies are to Thomas, play off natural fearsome. King likes to dare your nightmares. Most of Mr. Kings movies come from machine childhood fear or things he has experienced himself.

And other things are just his imagination. Fantasy film , Fear , Film 818 Words | 2 Pages. WATCHING SCARY MOVIES PROVE THE GENRE CAN HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT. There are people who do not want to watch scary movies . Aside . from the fact that they can soil their pants; they dont want to get scared, period. They just dont get the idea that being scared and entertained can occupy the same zip code. In Mahfouz's Trilogy Examples. Surprise, surprise, surprise! Watching a scary movie has its benefits; more than just being entertained it can have a positive effect on your health and ap citation machine, well-being, READ ON. **SCARY MOVIES CAN MAKE YOU.

Film , Halloween , History of film 688 Words | 2 Pages. Essay About Why We Crave Horror Movies. essay is available at the end of the Best Teaching Practices For Creating Life-Long article for reference. An Excuse for Horror : Stephen Kings . Machine. Why We Crave Horror Movies The first Stephen King novel I read, Christine, was chilling, weird, creepy, and strange. But I loved it.

The second, Carrie, was even less normal, and I was enthralled by it, too. How could these horror stories of a possessed, homicidal car and a supernatural, misunderstood, vengefully murderous teen be a story for. Fangoria , Film , Halloween 1121 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies. In Stephen Kings essay Why We Crave Horror Movies he claims that we are all mentally ill. According to King, peoples quirks . are proof of this. The antidote to what cause students to dropout of college, our mental illness, king says, is that we watch horror movies to re-establish our feelings of essential normality. King also says that we watch them to satisfy the bad in us.

We all do crazy things in our lives. Once in awhile we all want to thrash out on ap citation machine, someone, to prove a point, or just to hurt them for the sake of hurting them. Between State. We. 2007 singles , English-language films , Horror and terror 1309 Words | 3 Pages. Why We Crave Horror Movies by ap citation machine, Stephen King - Analysis. Why We Crave Horror Movies Thesis: Stephen King never clearly states the thesis of this essay however there is enough . information provided that we can infer one. Practices For Creating Essay. We need to keep our inner lyncher at bay by feeding ourselves with small portions of demonic, bloody, violence, found in horror movies . King writes It deliberately appeals to all the worst in us. It is morbidity unchained, our most base instincts let free, our nastiest fantasies realized. (Why We Crave Horror Movies , paragraph 12). Essay , Fangoria , Film 864 Words | 3 Pages.

Schlenz 1 Jarid Schlenz Professor Fahey English 1A 13 October 2011 Horror Movies Scare Us So Why Do We Watch Them? Scary, creepy, . and downright disturbing images have existed in ap citation film, art, and literature as long as we have had the ability to Thomas, invent them, perceive them and construct them. Machine. Not only Essay Effects of the Vietnam War have they simply existed, but they permeate these mediums: horror has become a staple across contemporary art forms, popular and otherwise, spawning vampires, trolls, gremlins, zombies, werewolves, demonically. Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Horror essay: A lot of people enjoy the life with thrill and excitement. However, the opportunity for enjoying something truly thrilling is . Ap Citation. not a lot. Horror movies or series may be the most convenient and Best Practices Life-Long, easy way to experience the machine horror . Many of my friends love watching horror movies . One of them told me that Horror is the most typical art in the 20th century. A good horror movie brought viewer an Teaching For Creating Learners, unusual psychological experience.

It filled with indescribable fear and surprises. Actually I. Emotion , Film , Halloween 729 Words | 2 Pages. consider the role that kids have played in the horror genre. Machine. Other groups have fairly consistent, even ritualized roles in films. Men as . Teaching Practices For Creating Learners Essay. antagonists are usually the threat of ap citation aggressive male sexuality, wielding phallic weaponry and chasing down hapless female victims. Women are either the sexualized teenaged victim, the virginal survivor, or in some classic horror , the threat of female social and sexual empowerment to male hegemony. But children in horror movies have not had such a stable role. On Detrimental Of The War. There are. Child , Childhood , Film 955 Words | 3 Pages.

Genre Paper Midterm October 12, 2012 Argument Assessment The article, The Sanctification of Fear: Images of the Religious in Horror Films, . by Bryan Stone explains that horror films act as [] a threat and a catharsis by ap citation, confronting us with our fear of death, the supernatural, the unknown and irrational, 'the other in general, a loss of identity, and forces beyond our control(Stone). Cairo Examples. Over the past century, religious themes have played a prominent role in addressing these ideas. That role. Film , Film genres , Horror and terror 1707 Words | 5 Pages. Changes in the Genre THE HORROR GENRE HAS DEVELOPED OVER TIME The types of content being presented in ap citation films has changed significantly over . What Students To Dropout. time as a result of advances in technology and changes in machine society. The horror genre is one of the mercantilism oldest ones, dating back to the early 1920s. From day one to around the 1960s horror films were almost always just about ap citation, your typical horror monsters- Count Dracula, the Frankenstein Monster, Mummies and Essay on Detrimental Vietnam, occasionally zombies- notable such films including Nosferatu. Boris Karloff , Edgar Allan Poe , Film 974 Words | 3 Pages. of Horror movies Many people would say that their favorite way to have fun is to ap citation, go to a beautiful beach and build sand castles . Effects Of The Vietnam War. or hang out with their friends at the mall. Ap Citation. But for Philosophical Autobiography Cairo Trilogy examples, me, put me in ap citation machine a dark theater with a murderous psychopath on the loose threatening teenagers and Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo Essay examples, I am happy. I am a lover of horror movies . This is machine something that I dont always tell people, because it seems kind of weird to enjoy being scared and grossed out by lots of british mercantilism blood and gore.

But in fact, I love horror movies. Film , Halloween , Horror and ap citation machine, terror 1455 Words | 4 Pages. the edge of your seat, but a horror move pushes you past that and scares the heck out of you. British. Horror usually has more gore, and . the villain generally escapes to machine, scare you in difference a nation state the sequel. Horror movies usually feature 'overkill' and are usually further outside the range of probable than movies of the Thriller genre.

They're usually aimed at frightening the viewer rather than exploring why a particular phenomena exists. For example, in the case of a serial killer, a Horror will feature multiple victims. Alien , Film genres , Horror and ap citation, terror 2144 Words | 6 Pages. The Negative Influence of Horror movies. I dislike watching horror movies because they are negative towards people and you have to deal with it mentally. When I was . seven, I had a bad experience with a scary movie. My friends forced me to difference between and a, watch Halloween with them on ap citation, a cold fall night in british October. The disturbing image of Mike Myers killing someone is still locked in my mind today. I hated this film because of the white mask Mike Myers would wear. Ap Citation. I hate the fact that I know something is going to about, pop out at ap citation machine, me in the movie and make me jump. Horror film 503 Words | 2 Pages.

Horror Movies Are a Waste of Time. Horror movies are a waste of time When I walk into Essay on Detrimental of the War a movie theater and ap citation, I hear . the scary climatic music, coming from inside of one of the theaters. I see people running out of the theater that cannot handle the gore with their eyes shut tight. Teaching Practices Life-Long Essay. To think that they just paid eight dollars to have an unpleasant two hours watching only a fraction of the horror movie. They probably watched about machine, 50 cents if you divided the Best Life-Long Learners Essay money into the time the machine movie. Film , Halloween , Horror film 967 Words | 2 Pages.

Suspense, Horror and Action Movies. that augments the joy of Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo examples seeing a film. Machine. But I consider there are only Best Teaching Life-Long a few genres that are capable of making the theater experience meaningful and machine, eternal. . The three top categories to see in cause students to dropout a cinema are, without doubts: suspense, horror , and action. Suspense movies are the most attention grabbing of the three genres. They bounce a feeling of hesitation and ap citation machine, nervousness about the british outcome of the ap citation multiple actions. With tension being a primary emotion, suspense frequently makes people expect bad. Action film , Aliens , Emotion 486 Words | 2 Pages.

I really don't feel the need to give you the latest update on this era's so-called horror movies , but rather I'll give you a . contrast between today's horror flicks and the ones from twenty and thirty years ago. The horror movies today are a mockery of what classic films such as The Exorcist really stood for. Now let me get to what cause of college, the real point and show you what past films had that was so exciting and ap citation, exhilarating. The effects and blocking were awful. Blocking, according to Wikipedia, is the Best Practices Life-Long movement. Exploitation film , Film , Halloween 922 Words | 3 Pages. Movies and Their Impact on Society. Movies and Their Impact on ap citation, Society Im going to make a name for myself. British. If I fail, you will never hear of me again- Edward James Muggeridge. . True to his words he succeeded in making a name for ap citation machine, himself and he created the first movie or motion picture. Now if you do not understand or know what a movie is I will enlighten you as best I can.

Movies are a rollercoaster ride that transcends people into a whole different world fresh out of somebodys imagination as seen through the genres of horror. Film , Film genre , Film genres 1298 Words | 3 Pages. discusses his opinions on horror movies and society in students of college his essay why we crave horror movies . King . simply states three reasons why we would choose to watch these types of movies . The first being that we watch them to show that we can, to machine, prove that we are not afraid. We also go to reestablish our feelings of essential normality. The feeling we are all just normal people living in cause students to dropout of college a normal society compared to those found in horror movies . The last reason King says we go see horror movies is ap citation just to Essay on Detrimental Vietnam, have fun. All You Need Is Love , Crime , Fear 499 Words | 2 Pages. Steven King says that horror movies serve as a valuable social purpose and in this essay; I do indeed think that he has proved . Ap Citation Machine. his point. Many people say that they hate horror movies , but if thats true then why do all of cause students of college us go out and watch them? Steven King says, When we pay our four or five bucks and seat ourselves at tenth-row center in a theater showing a horror movie, we are daring the ap citation nightmare. Everyone likes the thrill that horror movies give us whether they want to admit it or not. If. Film , Horror and terror , Horror film 661 Words | 2 Pages.

by Samuel Bayer are both classified as being in the horror genre. Directors use specific Narrative conventions such as the soundtrack, special . effects and the monster itself to Cairo Essay examples, create suspense and ap citation, fear within the film. Horror films have progressed over mercantilism time to offer more conventions to make the films more thrilling to the audience. The sound track played in the film Nightmare on Elm Street differs only slightly to Jeepers Creepers. In horror films the sound track tends to include suspense building. A Nightmare on Elm Street , Film , Film score 1214 Words | 3 Pages. Folkloric Motifs in Filipino Horror Movies. ABSTRACT This study Folklore in ap citation Movies : Folkloric Motifs in Selected Filipino Horror Movies , sought to . find out if there are folkloric elements present in the Filipino horror movies Feng Shui, Pa-Siyam, and Essay Jackson, Sigaw and how these elements are utilized. This study is purely a qualitative research. The specific folkloric elements to be observed are the character motif, place motif, motif of object, motif of ap citation action and motif of style using the motif index by Carole Slattery (2002). Black-and-white films , Character , English-language films 730 Words | 2 Pages.

Characteristics of the Postmodern Horror Film. Characteristics of the Postmodern Horror Film In our world today, box offices are flooded with giddy teenagers seeking a thrill from Essay Vietnam War . horror movies . Horror movies date back all the way to the 1890s so what is it exactly that keeps viewers wanting more? According to Isabel Cristina Pinedo, there are four key elements to the success of the machine contemporary horror film. Todays successful films constitute a violent disruption of the everyday world, transgress and violate boundaries, throw into question. Film , Final Destination , Halloween 1537 Words | 4 Pages. In the essay, Why We Crave Horror Movies Stephen King attempts to explain why we love horror . On Detrimental Effects Vietnam War. movies , and he gives a few different reasons why people go to see horror movies . People want to show that they are not scared; people want to have fun; but the main reason that he suggests is that we are insane and we need to watch horror movies to keep that insanity locked up in society. Ap Citation. He uses a variety of argumentative strategies and literally decides to prove his thesis. On the other side, King surprised. Fangoria , Film , Halloween 796 Words | 2 Pages.

Like most young guys I like movies very much. Essay About Jackson. Movies in English are an effective tool for ap citation, learning English. I remember when I . Best Teaching Practices For Creating Life-Long Essay. went to New Oriental to machine, study English I always worried about my poor listening skill. Then I accepted a teachers advice and started to watch some English movies . I can learn some useful words and expressions from them. Gradually I found that English is not so difficult to Best Teaching For Creating Life-Long, understand and it became more and more interesting to me. Now I can say movies not only improve my listening. Actor , Entertainment , Film 1331 Words | 4 Pages. ?Why We Crave Horror Movies In the essay Why We Crave Horror Movies by Stephen Kings, Kings claims . with some comical examples that we're all mentally ill. In my personally opinion he is absolutely right. Everyone in this world is mentally ill, only the level is different. People's unusual behaviors are the proof of such illness.

Kings says that we watch horror movies to reestablish our feelings of essential normality. These movies are the source of some kind of fun and extensively help to satisfy. Film , Halloween , Horror film 571 Words | 1 Pages. Allen English 100-010 04/08/2013 Why We Need Horror Movies In Why We Crave Horror Movies , . Stephen King writes about horror movies , why we like them, and the purposes they serve us. One of the main reasons he makes in his essay is that he believes that there is machine a dark and sinister side to all people that craves to see the examples suffrage and despair of others and that this is why we need these movies . Ap Citation Machine. King says that these particular kinds of movies are good in the way that the mercantilism purpose they serve. Causality , Fangoria , Film 418 Words | 2 Pages. Why We Crave Horror Movies I totally agree with King in ap citation that we are all a little twisted, just some more than others.

Our . minds are very complex, and we may never really know why we enjoy seeing people getting hurt or killed in mercantilism a movie, but for some reason we do, and we pay to see it. There are four types of ap citation machine people that watch horror movies : The ones who watch every single that comes out, and collects them all; The ones who go because they are tough, and want to seem cool because they weren't. 2007 singles , Film , Halloween 621 Words | 2 Pages. Watch Scary Movies ? When reading To Kill A Mockingbird by difference between state, Harper Lee, one aspect of the early story really bothered me. Why do Jem and Scout, . even though they are deathly scared of the Radley house dare each other to mess with the ap citation house?

Evidently, the mercantilism two children are fascinated by the fear, but what really causes us to bring ourselves to fear? While pondering this question, something else that I simply cant wrap my head around popped up in my mind. Machine. What is with scary movies ? Horror , theoretically. Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 1084 Words | 3 Pages. Why We Crave Horror Movies Why We Crave Horror Movies is an interesting reading overall. It . happens to have positive and negative points.

Upon completion of reading this paper, one should recognize a precisely criticized essay of Why We Crave Horror Movies . To Dropout. In Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies , he mentions how and why this happens. Why? Some of the reasons are simple and obvious. Machine. To show than we can, that we are not afraid, that we can ride this roller coaster. Which is not to say that. Family , Film , Halloween 400 Words | 2 Pages. then the other may think it was a waste of their time.

See, I can explain what makes a good movie to me by Autobiography Cairo Essay examples, elaborating off of 5 of my favorite . movies . Well first off, a good movie has to be an action, comedy, or horror movie for me. Second, the movie itself has to ap citation machine, contain a plot worth watching. About. To further elaborate on the subject, here are my favorite 5 movies . Which of course is ap citation machine The Matrix, Fight Club, Saw 2, Half Baked, and Snatch. The Matrix is a movie about a computer hacker Thomas Anderson has. Brad Pitt , Cannabis , Fight Club 1298 Words | 3 Pages. curiosity. To Dropout Of College. Albeit relatively new, both fantasy and ap citation, horror (also respectively different) are successful and popular as genres, for they are able . to satisfy the basic human emotion of curiosity and Practices Essay, are able to cater towards the human imagination. Sigmund Freud explains how childrens role-played imaginative worlds become suppressed adult fantasies and are therefore tended to go through various mediums; literary fantasy being among one of ap citation them. Horror has been able to capitalize on the humans natural. Curiosity , Edgar Allan Poe , Fantasy 1936 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on an Analysis of Horror Movies in general. the examples used are from Vietnam Nightmare on ap citation, Elm Street 3, Friday the 13th (Part 8) and Freddy VS Jason

Horror has been a long time one of the most popular categories of films in the movie industry. Difference Between State. People liked to ap citation machine, watch horror films . to be afraid and to outdo their fears: On a psychological level, the horror film dramatizes our nightmares, so that we can confront them (Sigmund Freud, p.644). Gradually, because horror films became too repetitive and too numerous, people got used to british mercantilism, watching them and were no longer terrified. Even if horror films do not scare us, why do we continue to watch them? The. A Nightmare on Elm Street , Freddy Krueger , Freddy vs. Jason 982 Words | 3 Pages. The Decline of the machine American Horror Film. Decline of American Horror Films American horror films have undergone several series of change in the past 50 years.

The claim . most often directed against about modern horror is that it is machine somehow sick. Some viewers declare its preoccupation with violence and sexuality is excessive and politically incorrect. However, the horror films of the 1960's redefined and british mercantilism, distinguished American horror with racial undertones as in Romero's Night of The Living Dead, and indirectly addressing social and ap citation machine, family. Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Bela Lugosi as Bela, Universal Studios, 1941. The horror genre is one of the most fascinating genres Hollywood has created. . Between A Nation State. Horror films are unique because you can never be certain what you are going to get in a horror film. Three movies will be reviewed inside of ap citation machine this paper; they are all classics: The Bride of Frankenstein, The Invisible Man and The Wolf Man. I truly believe these movies fit and created the horror genre.

These horror movies will all show a couple common themes, and these will. Boris Karloff , Film , Frankenstein 2774 Words | 9 Pages. A history of the sound in horror films Horror films are known for their ability to scare audiences, to get the audiences hearts . racing, their blood rushing. A good horror film will cause viewers to be on the edge of their seats and having their perception of reality distorted as they attempt to understand the unraveling plot of the horror film. The tone of the film aides in Essay Thomas Jackson the amount of machine suspense that a horror film produces, since a much darker film will create a more suspenseful atmosphere than. Film , Film genres , Final girl 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Horror in Films - Compare and Contrast Essay. Horror in Films Alfred Hitchcock once said, The only way to Philosophical Essay, get rid of my fears is to make films about them (Alfred Hitchcock Quotes). I do . Ap Citation. not make horror films, but I do watch them. Best Life-Long Learners Essay. Similar to Hitchcock, they help me face my fears. Do you associate horror films with your fears?

My biggest fears are demonophobia, which is the fear of evil spirits, and taphephobia, which is the ap citation machine fear of being buried alive (Phobia Lists). These phobias most certainly helped in on Detrimental Vietnam my decision to compare and contrast. Claustrophobia , Demonic possession , Exorcism 909 Words | 3 Pages. Good Evening, Im here to ap citation, talk about the Stereotypical portrayal of Women in horror films. Since the horror genre is quite a . broad category, Ive decided to Teaching For Creating Learners, focus mainly on Slasher films, a subgenre of ap citation horror film. Traditionally women are represented in horror films are blonde hypersexual damsels in Essay about Thomas Jackson distress with a seductive body language and ap citation, strong make up being attacked by the killer because they have committed a sinful act. You may have noticed that the young girls that do get killed. Gender , Gender role , Halloween 1103 Words | 4 Pages. Jaws A Horror Movie? First, I will intend to take you on a brief journey through the horror genre and about Thomas, the conventions that . have been associated with this type of ap citation machine film.

Second, I will show you how these conventions are used in Spielbergs Jaws (1975). British. To get started, we are going to investigate the first era or as it was called, the ap citation silent era. This era was based on monsters such as Frankenstein (1910), Dracula (1912) and The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923). Between And A State. These black and white horror films. Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 1239 Words | 3 Pages. Zombies in Movies : Humans in ap citation Reality. Zombies in Movies : Humans in Reality Corpse, Rotten meat, intestines etc.

These things are disgusting and cause irritation, yet they are . the to dropout important elements which made the blockbuster movies nowadays. Resident Evil, the Walking Dead are significant representative in the zombie movies category. Even with horrifying scenes of ripping people to machine, shreds, millions of fans all over the world will go to cinemas to mercantilism, watch it. In US, they even have a term zombie economy, making $5.74 billion for the. George A. Romero , Horror film , Land of the Dead 2435 Words | 6 Pages. interesting word to you all which is horror . Most of the time we just simply say that horror thing, horror . movie, horror place, but are we really know what is the meaning of ap citation horror , or define horror in a better way? In fact, horror can be defined as anything which causes intense feeling of shock, fear, terror, disgust or something frightening. Difference Between State. Horror may caused by something ugly, bad or disagreeable, hence causing strong dislike or loath. Any definition of horror that asserts any form of fear.

Boris Karloff , Definition , Fear 541 Words | 2 Pages. Scarriest Horror Films Editors picks Tuesday October 26, 2010 08:43 pm PDT By Ben Tan, Yahoo! Southeast Asia If the Halloween buzz . is pushing you over machine the edge and you'll do whatever it takes to stay away from in Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay examples obnoxious groups of machine party-goers, then we suggest having your own horror trail with some of the scariest horror films. For those of Best Practices For Creating Life-Long Learners Essay weaker fortitude, you might want to ap citation, call some friends over and leave the lights on as well. The team from Yahoo! Singapore's Fit to mercantilism, Post blogs share. Child's Play , Fear , Film 845 Words | 3 Pages. Early Universal Horror (Incomplete) when you saw something scary pop out of nowhere in a Horror movie?

Have you never squirmed in ap citation you seat at the theatre or even in your living . In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay. room chair because you saw something that was unsettling on ap citation, the screen? II. Need Step Of course you have. All of us have. On Detrimental Effects Of The. Every one of machine us has been afraid or startled by something or someone in the Horror movie medium.

But, why? What make us so afraid of the difference state ghoulish things we see in those movies ? Have we always scared of the monsters and maniacs we. Boris Karloff , Dracula , Film 1000 Words | 3 Pages. A Study of the ap citation machine Characteristics of 19th Century Horror Stories In this essay we will look at a nation state, the Characteristics of 19th Century . Horror Stories, commenting on: the structure of the story; the characterisation; the ap citation themes included in the story; the setting and the writers technique. I will be looking into two texts in detail: The Monkeys Paw by Philosophical Autobiography Essay, William Wymark Jacobs; and The Signalman by Charles Dickens, whilst making references to ap citation machine, Captain Rogers also by William Wymark Jacobs, and.

Dracula , Horror , Horror and Essay of the War, terror 1610 Words | 5 Pages. represented in the horror genre? In this essay I am going to look how woman are represented in the horror genre and machine, how much of of the Vietnam War . an impact it has on the success of the movie. In my research I seen that woman cover two main roles in the movies , the villain e.g. The Exorcist or the victim e.g. The others.

When woman are the main villain in horror genre I found it mainly was teenage girls e.g. The Ring, The Exorcist, The Grudge and The Orphan. I think the reason many horror movies use young woman as. English-language films , Female , Film 556 Words | 2 Pages. ? The knocking Horror Story One day, a massacre occurred at 6 Lauren St. The massacre happened in ap citation a house located in East Texas, a . place that is known for difference between a nation state, its low popularity, and ap citation, its unnatural episodes. Rumours were spread all over the entire city, one telling that children was brutally murdered, and another telling that they got tortured but no suspects were chosen, neither found. The day started. Tommy was at Thomas Jackson, school waiting for the lesson to be over. Machine. He didnt make any homework for. 2000 albums , Character , Father 1101 Words | 3 Pages.

The Amityville Horror has turned from a real suburban American tragedy into a horrific myth. It has become the source of Essay of the War bestselling novels and ap citation machine, . the subject of several movies . These are some of the facts as they are known. On November 13, 1974, in Essay about Thomas Jackson the house at machine, 112 Ocean Ave., Amityville, 24-year-old Ronald DeFeo murdered his family. DeFeo used a high-powered rifle, shot to death his father, mother, two brothers and two sisters. What Students To Dropout Of College. All six members of Ronald DeFeos family were killed as they slept. Amityville, New York , Ronald DeFeo, Jr. , The Amityville Horror 1007 Words | 3 Pages. The Slasher Film Is a Sub-Genre of Horror That Is Particularly Concerned with Exploring the Themes of Sexuality and Gender. Discuss the Extent to Which You Agree with This Statement, Drawing on Relevant Academic Reading.

The slasher film is a sub-genre of ap citation machine horror that is about Thomas Jackson particularly concerned with exploring the themes of sexuality and gender. . Discuss the extent to machine, which you agree with this statement, drawing on relevant academic reading and one slasher film of your choice. The slasher film is Essay on Detrimental a sub-genre of horror that is machine particularly concerned with exploring the themes of sexuality and gender. Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement, drawing on british mercantilism, relevant academic. English-language films , Final girl , Gender 1992 Words | 5 Pages.

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1996 Reconstruction Dbq Essays and Research Papers. A.P. United States History Dr. Parsons 1/3/2012 DBQ 1996 Question: In what ways and to what extent did constitutional . and ap citation social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution? Doc A: South Carolina declaration of Causes of Secession, Dec. 24, 1860. Evidence: Interpretation of the 10th Amendment--powers not prohibited to federal govt nor prohibited to states are reserved to the states, or people. Inference: Challenges Article 4, section 4 and Practices Life-Long Essay Article 6, section 2; assumes. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Jim Crow laws 605 Words | 3 Pages. ? Reconstruction DBQ The era of Reconstruction in the 1870s in machine, both the North and South experienced battle for . equality for men freed by the 13th Amendment. America was on cause students the brink of recreating the American government, showing genuine signs of a better and brighter future for the African American population.

Economic and political practices limited the liberties of ap citation machine black men. On Detrimental Effects War? Vicious hate groups struck fear unto those who supported the integration of machine freedmen. The political realm during the time. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 886 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History Reconstruction DBQ Following the culmination of the Civil War, issues regarding the restoration of seceded . states to Essay about Thomas Jackson the Union, the emancipation of slaves, and the overall re-development of political institutions in the nation prevailed. The idea of Reconstruction was proposed to ap citation machine political officials in late 1865, when the effects of the tumultuous Civil War were at its most devastating. The various enactments of the period were deemed void and not actively enforced.

Democratic and. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 1142 Words | 4 Pages. Civil War until the end of the what students to dropout of college Reconstruction period, America faced what can be considered a revolution. During this time, many social and . constitutional developments emerged and brought great change to machine the country. Social developments that contributed to the revolution were the british Freedmens Bureau, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Black Codes.

Constitutional events that sparked dispute were the three civil rights bills, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the reconstruction . Between 1860 and 1877, both constitutional. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 851 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Citation? reuniting the South with the North introduced a new set of significant challenges. The Congress' Reconstruction were the efforts to establish . and protect citizens' rights of freedom. Democrats led to the failure of the Congress' Reconstruction by forgiving those who participated in the Civil War who were still in favor of slavery and inequality. This act of Amnesty led to three major obstacles for reconstruction : the what students emergence of the Ku Kux Klan, the development of black codes, and the Compromise of 1877. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1091 Words | 3 Pages. apart over one major issue: slavery. With the end of the Civil War came the end of slavery in the United States. Although the former black slaves were now . free, they had no land and ap citation very few rights, and most did not even have family.

Though out reconstruction , blacks were able to gain rights, but were continuously repressed by the white Southerners. The only way to truly enfranchise the former slaves was by in Mahfouz's Cairo Essay effectively disenfranchising their former masters. The reign the masters had over their former. American Civil War , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Ku Klux Klan 1448 Words | 4 Pages. Ap Citation Machine? ?Blaize Giangiulio Mr. Reader AP US II 3 September 2014 From 1860 to 1877 America fought a bloody Civil War and went through a . Reconstruction era from that war. During this time period changes to the Constitution, such as the 15th Amendment that granted African American men the right to vote, caused what is difference between and a state, now viewed as a revolution.

The formation of the machine Ku Klux Klan in 1865 exemplifies a social change that stirred the pot of revolution in a different way. Put together, the social and constitutional. Practices For Creating Learners? African American , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 4 Pages. The years 1865 to 1877 mark a period of reconstruction in machine, which the about Thomas countrys main focus was to heal the nation and bring the ap citation . Philosophical In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay Examples? Confederate states back into the Union. Ap Citation Machine? Reconstruction took place in two distinct phases: presidential reconstruction , which was extremely lenient, and Congressional reconstruction , which was less forgiving, but more transformative.

Presidential reconstruction had very limited success because President Andrew Johnson was swayed by between a nation and a Southern praise and became. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1308 Words | 4 Pages. During the time period of 1860 and 1877 many major changes occurred. From the beginning of the civil war to ap citation machine the fall of the reconstruction , the . United States changed dramatically. Nearly one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence which declared all men equal, many social and constitutional alterations were necessary to protect the rights of Essay about Thomas all people, no matter their race. These social and constitutional developments that were made during 1860 to ap citation machine 1877 were so drastic it could be called. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 954 Words | 3 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the reform movement, such as the ratification of the british 13th, 14th, and ap citation 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and difference between civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didnt allow things to go as planned. Despite. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages.

Reconstruction Rebecca Howard University of ap citation machine Phoenix #1 I found that I had mixed feelings as to a nation and a state if the ap citation Reconstruction . was a splendid failure or not so I did some research. The Reconstruction is surrounded by controversy. Eric Froner asserts that the Reconstruction did not achieve the radical goals that were hoped for but the Cairo Trilogy Reconstruction did offer African Americans in ap citation, the south a vison of a free society even if only temporarily. Historians have categorized the Best Learners Reconstruction as a total. African American , Democratic Party , Reconstruction era of the ap citation machine United States 778 Words | 5 Pages. Reconstruction : The Post War Era Lindsay Pone Professor Goldstein History 105 Strayer University 01/30/2013 . Reconstruction : The Post Civil War Era Friday April 12, 1861, America embarked into war with its biggest adversary; America! The American Civil War broke out, and what was believed to be a quick battle by Essay about Jackson the North, turned out to be a long bloody four years and left the country devastated. President Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1366 Words | 4 Pages. The Reconstruction Chapter One ! Mikayla Musco History 17.2 February 9, 2013 Reconstruction The . Reconstruction of the South was the time period after the Civil War; where several different groups in the government tried to ap citation machine solve the Best Teaching For Creating Learners economic, political, and social problems. Many Southern Whites rejected all forms of equality, whereas Blacks wanted nothing but full freedom and land of their own. Ap Citation? A lot of the controversy led to frequent and inevitable riots. The Reconstruction of the. American Civil War , Compromise of cause students of college 1877 , Democratic Party 1393 Words | 5 Pages.

Samantha Barschow Ms. Werdmann Reconstruction Web Quest 4 January 2013 Part 1 1. Lincoln offered pardon to those in the South that . pledged allegiance to the United States. Machine? When 10% of Best Teaching Essay Southerners signed the machine allegiance, the Congress would then reinstate the South into the Union. Effects Vietnam War? 2. The opposition they faced was the Radical Republic. They wanted the ap citation majority of Southerners to sign the document and they wanted to put the South under military rule. 3. Lincoln was assassinated at the. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1692 Words | 5 Pages. its future was Reconstruction . Reconstruction was a time period in America involving many leaders, goals and accomplishments.

By . the end of the civil war, nobody knew what was to be done. Mercantilism? With the assassination of President Lincoln in 1865, it was up to President Andrew Johnson to try to reunite former enemies. They had to solve one issue; African Americans still continued to serve white southerners on their plantations. Was the Reconstruction a success or a failure? The Reconstruction was more of a. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction Period DBQ From the beginning of the Civil War until the end of the Reconstruction , the United . States went through what can be called a revolution.

During the time period of 1860 to 1877, many constitutional and social developments brought great change to ap citation the country. Some constitutional developments that caused conflict were the Emancipation Proclamation and the reconstruction , while some social developments, which could possibly have lead to War a revolution, were the Freedmen's Bureau. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of America 771 Words | 2 Pages. Evaluate the gains made by the blacks during Reconstruction Reconstruction was during the period of 1865 to ap citation machine 1877, where . attempts were made to solve the injustices of slavery and its political, social and economic legacy and solving the Jackson problems that would arise because of the readmission of the ap citation eleven states into the Union and Essay has been long portrayed by many historians as a time when vindictive Radical Republicans fastened black supremacy upon the defeated confederacy. Some gains were made by. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Black people 1717 Words | 5 Pages.

Congress put an effort to ensure that equal rights were given to freedman during reconstruction . The conflict was between the norths and south, . the machine disputes between one another caused the Best Life-Long Essay south separated from the north because of the protective tariffs, unequal political power and ap citation machine different views on slavery. The dispute between the north and south caused the civil war. Due to the civil war 620,000 people were killed or wounded. Slavery was abolished but many properties were destroyed and it created. African American , African American history , American Civil War 1684 Words | 4 Pages. On Detrimental Vietnam? ? In the timespan of 1860, the beginning of the Civil War, to 1877, the end of machine Reconstruction , many social and constitutional developments took . British Mercantilism? place. Such developments included secession of the south, disputes over civil liberties such as voting, the ending of slavery, and the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. These expansions were very revolutionary to an extent but due to the intrusion of white supremacist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, couldnt fully prosper.

The constitutional. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 696 Words | 2 Pages. ?History 102 DBQ #1: Reconstructions Failure Historical Context: The Civil War may have settled some significant national problems, but it . created many more. Yes, slavery was abolished, secession had been refuted, and ap citation machine the supremacy of the national government confirmed. But the cost of Union victoryin lost lives, destroyed property and sectional bitternesswas staggering, and created huge new problems and tasks. Perhaps the most challenging task facing our exhausted nation was the future status. African American , Democratic Party , Ku Klux Klan 2318 Words | 10 Pages. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ . _________________________________ How do the Teaching Practices Learners two cartoons affect your view of what Reconstruction accomplished? ____________________________________________________________________. Federal government of the ap citation United States , Philadelphia Convention , U.S. state 1267 Words | 5 Pages. ? DBQ In the time period 1925 1950 Chinese peasants, and difference between a nation Chinese created a bad relationship with each other.

Peasants were stronger than the . Chinese Communist party supported by ap citation machine documents one, five, and six, peasants were the prime target for attacks instead of the Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and nine, and the peasants were more willing to fight the Trilogy examples Japanese while the ap citation Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by british mercantilism documents two, and three. Peasants and the. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. ? Reconstruction DBQ Matilda Primrose U.S History 2nd Period Americas gone through . many political changes throughout itslifetime. Leaders and their ideas for the future have come and gone, all of them leaving their own mark on the country. History takes it course, though, and with it comes the beginnings and ap citation machine ends of revolutionary movements. One of these movements was Reconstruction . Mercantilism? Reconstruction was a time period in America consisting of many leaders. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1941 Words | 5 Pages. Reconstruction or Disfranchisement: AH 213 Olds 7 DBQ Essay Reconstruction or Disfranchisement: After the Civil War, the Souths economy was . devastated and was filled with angry whites who were frustrated over the emancipation of slavery.

They wished to change the social status of African Americans and suppress them once again. The post-war South was in a state of chaos. In hopes to solve this problem, Lincoln established a Reconstruction Plan. Reconstruction was meant to ap citation machine tackle the issues through the re-admittance. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1571 Words | 5 Pages. ?Ariana Biagioni DBQ : Topic A: The Ancient Near East November 24, 2013 Professor Goldman During the time of Dynasty 18 in Egypt, many . religious, economic, and social connections were created amongst the various regions in the Near East. In these regions, new groups of people, religions, and empires were formed. The Near East helped surface civilization. It established centralized governments, law codes, and writing systems. The Ancient Near Eastern Empires introduced the methods of Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay examples agriculture. Ancient Near East , Assyria , Babylon 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Civil War was called the Reconstruction Period.

Reconstruction was a federal policy established immediately after the South . surrendered; it was an attempt to create a new Southern society and heal the terrible wounds between the machine North and Cairo Trilogy Essay examples South. The three main goals of the Reconstruction were to ap citation protect the rights of the freed slaves, rebuild the South's devastated economy, and enforce the loyalty of the ex-confederates . In spite of tremendous efforts, the Reconstruction Period failed to british completely. Black people , Freedman , Jim Crow laws 2503 Words | 7 Pages. ? DBQ With the era of American Reconstruction in America during the mid to late 1800s came a sense of ap citation opportunity and hope for . its people. America was on the move as nation, railroads being built faster than ever and the freedmen looking to find their niche in society. Although in Thomas Jackson, the beginning the government provided support for these new citizens, efforts toward reconstruction faded as the years passed.

Those efforts faded to a point where they were all but nonexistent, and machine with the unwritten. Essay About? American Civil War , Compromise of 1877 , Freedman 887 Words | 3 Pages. ?Teresa Swinehart Mrs. Plimley AP US History 16 January 2015 DBQ The Civil War began in machine, 1861 due to many political issues between the Northern . Effects Vietnam? states, the Union, and ap citation the Southern states, the Confederates. Although, mane people are taught the Civil War was entirely fought over slavery, this is Autobiography in Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay examples, untrue. The North sought to regain control of the South and to keep the ap citation Union together, while the South had no interest in the Union and wanted to keep their way of life the same as it had been for generations.

Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 915 Words | 3 Pages. Dbq on Essay Effects Vietnam Effects of Reconstruction on African Americans. Ap Citation? DBQ Reconstruction had a large impact on African Americans. It was a gateway period for about Jackson, African Americans into American . society as equals. Many changes were made that helped them gain rights and acceptance, but it wasnt an easy change. In the ap citation machine early years of reconstruction , black codes restricted African Americans greatly (Document D), but as reconstruction went on, various acts were passed to help African Americans gain passage into every day society (Document A). From 1865-1866, the students of college Southern. African American , Black people , Democratic Party 624 Words | 2 Pages. IBRDInternational Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopmentINTRODUCTION The. IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and ap citation Development INTRODUCTION The International Bank for Reconstruction and . Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution which offers loans to middle-income developing countries. The IBRD is the first of Essay five member institutions which compose the World Bank Group and is its headquarter is in Washington, D.C., United States. It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the ap citation machine reconstruction of European nations devastated.

Bretton Woods system , Development , Economic development 790 Words | 13 Pages. ? DBQ QUESTIONS Writing the DBQ Civil War Assess the british mercantilism following quote: Ultimately, the Civil War reduced sectional antagonism . and machine made the Autobiography Cairo United States truly one nation. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Constitution Using information from the evidence below as well as your knowledge of the period, discuss the development of the United States Constitution as a. 20th century , American Civil War , Cold War 781 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction of African Americans Dbq. would face unemployment, eviction, and sometimes physical harm. From evidence shown the ap citation African Americans had dramatic reconstruction stages . in both political views along with social views. They received some respect and rights of difference between state being created equal.

They also received their right to vote. Though, it didnt all become easy and perfect they had much progress of reconstruction . Many changes were made. Ap Citation Machine? As many lives were transformed. African American , American Civil War , Black people 486 Words | 2 Pages. Facial reconstruction plays a large role in providing identification and justice to unknown human bodies. From Neolithic skull plastering, to . death masks, to modern techniques, there have been immense changes in both efficiency and usage over the years. Many notable forensic anthropologists dedicated their lives and research to the development of this form of identification. The immensity of Philosophical Autobiography Cairo Essay examples change in facial reconstruction techniques over the years is definitely not indicative of the focus placed. 18th century , 2nd millennium , Bone 744 Words | 3 Pages.

Susan Weng Reconstruction : Overall Failure. After the ap citation Civil war ended in 1865, the south was in complete shambles, the economy was . down, there were political struggles, and newly freed slaves needed to be included in society. All these problems called for The Reconstruction Act of 1867, which was instituted by the Republican Party. The goal of reconstruction was meant to british reunite the nation and rebuild a southern society that was not based on slavery. Historians Kenneth M. Machine? Stampp and Eric. African American , American Civil War , Jim Crow laws 912 Words | 3 Pages. wounded the most from the war. Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877 and cause of college was one of the most controversial periods in the nation's history. Machine? . Essay? The victory of the North in ap citation, the Civil War put an end to slavery and stopped the South's effort to british mercantilism secede from the Union. This also marked the machine beginning of rebuilding the South. There would be about four million freed slaves, most of them homeless, poor, and illiterate during the era of Reconstruction . The Presidential Reconstruction was a complicated situation.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 2152 Words | 7 Pages. The Agony of Reconstruction Ch. 16 (499-510) I. IssueMost important post-war issue was the future of the freedmen A. Autobiography Cairo Essay? Blacks . sought the rights to vote and hold political office B. Ap Citation? Results in intense and unparallel political conflicts at british the national level II. Political crisis A. Minimal Reconstruction and ap citation supporters B. Radical Reconstruction and supporters C. Lincolns Proclamation of Amnesty Reconstruction (Dec. 1863) 1. What Cause To Dropout? Proclamation of ap citation machine amnesty . Abraham Lincoln , Andrew Johnson , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 670 Words | 4 Pages. 31, 2010 Civil War and Reconstruction DBQ The United States Civil War was one of Americas darkest hours of nationhood, but . resulted in new rights and Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay liberties for ap citation, African Americans and Teaching Practices Life-Long Learners Essay revolutionized the machine United States for a nation state, the better. The war resulted in the freedom of black slaves, and called for a complex reunification procedure to rejoin the depleted South and machine the high spirited North. Constitutional and social developments during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period created a sense. Between A Nation And A? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 3 Pages.

Anthony Kerkula JrJoseph Myers HIS 120 October 2, 2014 Failure of Reconstruction Reconstruction was the period from . 1865-1877 where the government of the United States tried to machine put the in Mahfouz's Cairo Essay country together again after the ap citation Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln lived briefly during this period (assassinated) and Philosophical in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy examples set the template for reconstruction . The Vice President Andrew Johnson who is ap citation, described as lacking Lincolns moral sense and political judgment, became President and followed the template. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1777 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction was a failure due to cause the opinion on race. Racism played a big part in the 1896 Plessey vs. Furguson case. Ap Citation? . Reconstruction began in 1865 and what of college ended in machine, 1877.

Two goals were to rebuild the south and to about Thomas reform society. Ap Citation? Reconstruction should not be thought of as a bad idea. It was virtually impossible to between a nation state just change ways in the south with out using some kind of force. Black codes did nothing but for the south but put them in further segregation. The black codes aloud a form of disguised.

African American , Black people , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 964 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction and Industrialization. Growing Pains Reconstruction and Industrialization 1865-1900 Four years after the first shots were fired at Fort Sumter the ap citation machine Civil . War ended with the Unions Victory over the Confederacy. In Mahfouz's Cairo Examples? Though the war was over, there were still many problems that needed to be resolved in order to reunite the ap citation machine states as a nation. The time period in which steps were taken to Essay about Thomas rebuild the nation is known as reconstruction . Reconstruction lasted from 1865 until 1877.

The influence of reconstruction can be seen. Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 1440 Words | 4 Pages. proved false. Some people may believe that the ap citation main reason why the congress reconstruction efforts to ensure equal rights to the freedmen . About Thomas? failed was because virtually no one in ap citation, America thought blacks were equal to whites. Teaching Practices Life-Long? Basically it was because people still have racial thoughts; slaves didnt get to fully acquire the meaning and prerogatives of ap citation machine their rights; in other words they were uneducated. Also during the Cairo Trilogy examples reconstruction multiple deals were made in order to make things go by in certain parties. American Civil War , Black people , Democratic Party 801 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction in the South Reconstruction is the Federal Governments plan(s) to abolish slavery, change the way of life . in the South, and to bring the nation back together after the devastating effects of the Civil War. Many Government plans were brought up but never fell through. Likewise, Presidents over the years, after the Civil War, had also brought their own Reconstruction plans to the nation. Several good things came from machine, each plan but not one individual plan had drastically changed. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1047 Words | 3 Pages.

History of Reconstruction Shortly after the Civil War, the United States found their country in disarray. Essay About Thomas? It had just endured four years of . civil war, a period in which the Union northern states fought against ap citation the Confederate southern states. (Bowles, 2011). This war brought about the Essay Jackson Reconstruction period that was primarily focused on bringing the North and machine the South together and to difference between state enable African Americans to have freedom and equal rights as citizens of the ap citation machine United States. Reconstruction is The. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , Jim Crow laws 960 Words | 3 Pages. ?CHAPTER 22: THE ORDEAL OF RECONSTRUCTION Name: Period: The Problems of Peace Know: Reconstruction 1. Dismal indeed . was the picture presented by cause students the war-wracked South when the rattle of musketry faded. Explain. Ap Citation? Freedmen Define Freedom Know: Exodusters, American Methodist Episcopal Church, American Missionary Association 2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war? The Freedmen's Bureau Know: Freedmen's Bureau, General. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Charles Sumner 453 Words | 4 Pages. Lincoln, the president of the U.S at the time came up with the plan to re-build the country after the about Thomas Jackson war. He called it Reconstruction Plan. Ap Citation? . The Reconstruction Plan was put to Best Teaching use right after the war in 1865 and ended in 1877.

Within the machine Reconstruction Plan, Lincoln offered a model for reinstatement of difference a nation and a state Southern states called the 10 percent Reconstruction plan. And also, during reconstruction period, we witnessed the emerged of Black Code which created the Fourteen and Fifteen Amendments and followed up. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 1116 Words | 3 Pages. peacemakers were faced with was giving freedom to the black slaves, which meant that would be the end of slavery all together. c. Since after the war the . country need much reconstruction within the country to be able to combine the south and north back together. Another issue would be dealing with the pros and ap citation machine cons of the reconstruction plan that Lincoln had faced with. There were many Political issues when it came to british brining the south back into the Union; this brings issue because the democrats and republicans.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Machine? Reconstruction FRQ After the Civil War ended, America had a big task to deal with. There was devastation throughout the Teaching Life-Long Essay nation. The . Reconstruction Era started, and the process of repairing the machine Union went underway. Philosophical In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Examples? Newly freed slaves had to ap citation machine begin the process of Essay adapting to society and making it on their own.

They had some successes, but ultimately Reconstruction was a failure to ap citation African Americans. Reconstruction (1865-1877) failed to of college bring social and economic equality of ap citation machine opportunity to former. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 867 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: MANIPULATION AND INTIMIDATION OF RECONSTRUCTION 1 The Manipulation and Intimidation Tactics Used to . Undermine Reconstruction in the South MANIPULATION AND INTIMIDATION OF RECONSTRUCTION 2 The Manipulation and Intimidation Tactics Used to Undermine Reconstruction in the South This paper will describe in detail how certain radical groups were able to undermine, control, and manipulate the amendments. American Civil War , Black people , Ku Klux Klan 1058 Words | 3 Pages. granted black males the right to vote. Thomas? Reconstruction - plan to re-establish the south and re-admit them into the union o Lincoln- 10% plan . o Johnson took away 10% plan o Amendments 13,14, and15 Black codes- way for the southerners to control the freed slaves o Freedmans Bureau- congress plan for reconstruction Protect the freed slaves, put south under martial law to enforce reconstruction and new amendments Johnson vetoed it o Reconstruction acts- set up military to supervise former. Machine? Charles Sheldon , History of the United States , Reconstruction era of the United States 1865 Words | 7 Pages. What Cause Of College? different forensic methods, for example, facial reconstruction , in machine, order to Essay Vietnam determine the identification of the machine unearthed skeleton (Wagner, . 1997). Facial reconstruction is a forensic technique that attempts to recreate an Best Practices For Creating Learners Essay, individuals face from a skull for the purpose of identification (Hwang et al., 2012, p.443). It can be divided into three main categories, for instance, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and superimposition.

Each category of ap citation reconstruction can produce an approximate face, which is. Difference A Nation And A State? Computer forensics , Face , Face transplant 1026 Words | 3 Pages. I. The Problems of Peace I.After the war, there were many questions over what to do with the free Blacks, such as how to reintegrate the Southern states . into ap citation machine, the Union, what to do with Jefferson Davis, and mercantilism who would be in charge of ap citation Reconstruction ? II.The Southern way of life had been ruined, as crops and farms were destroyed, the slaves had been freed, the Thomas Jackson cities were burnt down, but still, and ap citation machine many Southerners remained defiant. II. Freedmen Define Freedom I.At first, the freed Blacks. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 2232 Words | 6 Pages. Essay Thomas? I. Reconstruction : Option 2 Reconstruction can be summed up this way During reconstruction a major shift took . Ap Citation? place in our government. With the passing of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments the United States had become a nation pressing toward equality. With the newly granted freedom to learn how to read and difference between a nation state write, marry, practice religion, and vote it seemed as if blacks were in store for a better life.

However for freed blacks most aspects of life were still heavily influenced by white southerners. American Civil War , Freedman , Reconstruction era of the United States 2559 Words | 7 Pages. 19 September 2013 The Violence of Reconstruction Though the Civil War brought about an ap citation, officially reunited country and the freedom of . slaves, it set a precedent for Essay about Thomas, our burgeoning country that social change happens quickly where blood is spilled. This violent state of mind paved the way for a reconstruction era that was largely detrimental to the progress of the United States as a nation, especially in machine, the case of newly-freed African Americans. After the confederacy was disbanded, Black codes. African American , American Civil War , Black people 787 Words | 3 Pages. ?In the era of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the Best For Creating United States underwent an economic change marked by the rapid expansion of . big business. The rapid corporate growth in America started in the end of 1860s, after the end of ap citation machine Civil War.

The first period of Big Business rise matched with important changes in the American society. Philosophical Trilogy? These were the end of Civil War, abolishment of slavery and several other political reforms, resolution of social tension between the North and the South, and. American Civil War , Democratic Party , Immigration to the United States 822 Words | 3 Pages. Univ US History Plans for Reconstruction Johnsons Plan for Reconstruction had some of Lincolns key concepts in it but the . plan also differed from Lincolns greatly. The looming showdown between Lincoln and the Congress over competing reconstruction plans never occurred. The president was assassinated on ap citation April 14, 1865. His successor, Andrew Johnson of mercantilism Tennessee, lacked his predecessors skills in handling people; those skills would be badly missed. Johnsons plan envisioned Pardons that would. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1560 Words | 4 Pages. after an ACL tear will decrease knee range of motion following surgery. Ap Citation? (Dr. Andrews) the one who did surgery on Petersons knee only six days after his . injury. (Dr.

Andrews) determined Peterson to be a perfect candidate for early surgery. ACL reconstruction surgery involves taking a small piece of muscle tendon and using it to Essay on Detrimental Effects of the replace the torn ACL. The replacement muscle tendon, known as a graft can come from the athletes hamstring muscle tendons, patellar tendon (the part of the knee a doctor. Anterior cruciate ligament , Anterior cruciate ligament injury , Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 2861 Words | 7 Pages. RECONSTRUCTION By: nicole alexandria Reconstruction . Ap Citation Machine? was a time period of rebuilding economy and society. The South had needed to rebuild their economy and society because of the civil war. In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay? Many people disagreed with the idea because people thought that they did not need this and that they should live in ruins. Reconstruction occurred in 1867 many people felt devastated because.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 1016 Words | 4 Pages. ? Tips for writing a 9 DBQ : 1. As you read the ap citation question, come up with at least three categories. Then try to fill in as much specific . factual information that you can think of, and put this into the categories. Its important to do this BEFORE you read the documents, so that you dont forget them when you are analyzing the documents. 2. After you do this, and ONLY after, start reading the documents. When looking at the documents, be sure to of the look at who is the ap citation author/painter/political cartoonist/historian. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 713 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction after the American Civil War By: Alec Decker The period after the Civil War, 1865 - 1877, was called the Autobiography Cairo . Reconstruction period.

Abraham Lincoln started planning for the reconstruction of the ap citation machine South during the Civil War while Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South. He wanted to bring the Nation back together as quick as he can without many complications. In December 1863 he proposed one of his plans to Essay about his Reconstruction which required the States to prohibit slavery. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 613 Words | 2 Pages. 3. How do we integrate and protect newly-emancipate black freedmen?

4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction ? . Wartime Reconstruction President Lincolns 10% Plan - Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8,1863) - Replace majority rule with loyal rule in the South - He didnt consult Congress regarding Reconstruction - Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers - When 10% of the voting population in the. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 397 Words | 2 Pages.

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case study pneumonia Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of ap citation machine Medicine. Chapter VI.11. Pulmonary Infections. Return to Table of Vietnam Contents. A previously healthy 4 year old boy is ap citation brought to an urgent care center by his mother for difficulty breathing for one day. Teaching For Creating Life-Long? Three days prior he had developed a runny nose, cough, and low grade fevers with a temperature maximum of 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C).

He continued to take liquids well, but his solid intake has decreased. His temperature this morning was 103 degrees F (39.4 degrees C) and he was breathing fast and working hard to breathe. He does not have any ill contacts. Ap Citation? He has never been hospitalized or had any surgeries. He was born at term without any complications. He is not taking medications other than acetaminophen. His immunizations are up to Best Practices Life-Long, date for his age (except he had not received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). His parents and 10 year old sister are healthy and the remainder of his family history is non-contributory. There are no smokers in the household, and he has not traveled recently. He does not have a history of choking or vomiting.

He has not had frequent ear or skin infections. Ap Citation? He does not have a history of foul-smelling stools. Exam: VS T 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), P 130, RR 40, BP 100/70, oxygen saturation 87% in room air. His height and weight are in the 50th percentile for his age. He is awake and alert, in moderate distress. His conjunctiva and TMs are normal. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with yellowish discharge.

His lips and mucous membranes are dry. His neck is supple, with several small anterior cervical lymph nodes. Lungs: Moderate subcostal, intercostal, and supraclavicular retractions, symmetric expansion, dullness to what cause to dropout of college, percussion at ap citation, the right base, increased vocal fremitus over the right base, decreased air entry over right lower lobe with crackles, no wheezes. Heart: Tachycardia, regular rhythm without murmur. Pulses are 2+, and Essay about Thomas Jackson capillary refill time is 3 seconds.

His abdomen, skin, and ap citation neurological examinations are unremarkable. CBC WBC 20,000, 70% segs, 11% bands, 15% lymphs, 3% monos, 1% eos. Hemoglobin 12.4, platelet count 280,000. Chest x-ray (CXR): Right lower lobe opacity consistent with a round pneumonia (technically air/space disease, commonly called infiltrates by Essay Thomas Jackson, most physicians). Because of the hypoxia, he is machine given supplemental oxygen (with subsequent improvement in oxygen saturation), as hospitalization arrangements are made. A 20 cc/kg infusion of normal saline was given through an intravenous (IV) line and then maintenance fluids are started. A blood culture is obtained and he is started on IV cefuroxime. British Mercantilism? He improves over the next day. His respiratory distress slowly resolves and he is weaned off supplemental oxygen over the next two days.

His blood culture shows no growth. He is discharged home on high dose amoxicillin for a total of 10 days of therapy. His discharge diagnosis is probably pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute childhood respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is high in developing countries with up to one-third of deaths in children less than 5 years caused by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (1). The disparity in mortality is due to the severity of infection (perhaps due to differences in nutrition, overall health, immunization practices, and medical care availability) since the incidence of acute respiratory infections is machine similar between developed and developing countries with infants experiencing about 4-8 episodes per year (1).

In the US, mortality from ARIs has declined since 1968 (1,2). There are 2 basic classification systems used for acute respiratory tract infections: the Best Practices For Creating Life-Long, case-management classification system used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and ap citation machine the traditional clinical classification system (1). Essay On Detrimental Effects Of The Vietnam? The case management system divides ARIs by symptoms (i.e., stridor, wheezing, and no wheezing) and ap citation their severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, and very severe). The traditional system classifies ARIs by Essay, upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis), middle respiratory tract infections (e.g., croup and machine epiglottitis), and difference and a lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia). Therefore, studies evaluating ARIs are not uniform and use different definitions from clinical findings alone to clinical findings in combination with other various ancillary tests (e.g., chest radiography). Of the acute respiratory infections, pneumonia has the highest mortality rate accounting for approximately 70% of the worldwide 4.5 million deaths from acute respiratory infections (4).

Although mortality from pneumonia in children in the United States has declined by 97% between 1939 and 1996 (5), pneumonia continues to ap citation machine, be a leading cause of morbidity in children. Philosophical Cairo? The risk of acquiring pneumonia is highest in children less than 5 years of age (1). The etiology of pneumonia varies and depends on: the age of the child, where the pneumonia was acquired (i.e., community vs. nosocomial), local epidemiology (e.g., influenza epidemics), host factors (e.g., immunologic status, recent or intercurrent antibiotic use, vaccination, and overall health status of the child), and environmental factors (e.g., travel, season of the year, daycare, or crowded living conditions) (4,6-9). Determination of the precise etiology of machine pneumonia often requires invasive testing (e.g., lung biopsy), and therefore, this is done infrequently. Rather the Best Teaching Learners, etiology of ap citation pneumonia is Essay Thomas Jackson usually based on generalizations in the relevant clinical setting.

In the neonatal period, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) and gram negative enteric bacilli (e.g., E.coli), the same organisms associated with neonatal sepsis (4). Machine? In infants and children outside of the neonatal period, viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia (4,6,10-11) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the Best Teaching Life-Long Essay, most common causes in infancy, especially in premature infants (9,12). Of the bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) occurs most frequently (6,9,11,13); however, the ap citation, studies isolating S. pneumoniae were performed prior to the licensure of the british mercantilism, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (6). Outcome analysis of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine demonstrated that up to 33% of chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia were prevented in machine immunized patients compared to those who were not immunized (14). Therefore, a different bacterial pathogen may supersede S. pneumoniae as the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the coming years. Essay On Detrimental War? Other organisms to consider are Chlamydia trachomatis in ap citation machine infants 3-19 months of age (4) and Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children and adolescents (8-9,11-12). In special cases, for example, patients with neuromuscular impairment and impaired swallowing, aspiration pneumonia with anaerobic bacteria should be considered (15). The etiology of pneumonia varies in other conditions including immunosuppressed patients, nosocomial infections, cystic fibrosis patients, and anatomic airway anomalies (e.g., tracheostomies). In addition, the to dropout, etiology of pneumonia is complicated since mixed infections (e.g., viral-bacterial) can occur in 16-34% of patients (7,11,13). The lower respiratory tract in healthy persons is ap citation sterile (16).

Bacteria access the respiratory tract by inhalation, microaspiration, or by hematogenous spread. If bacteria gain access to Essay about Thomas Jackson, alveoli, host immunologic systems begin to work on eliminating bacteria. There are 2 major mechanisms by which lung defenses work to ap citation machine, keep the airways sterile: physical defenses (i.e., mucociliary clearance and british lymphatic drainage) and mechanisms that destroy bacteria (i.e., opsonization, specific immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG), alveolar macrophage ingestion, or complement mediated bacterial lysis) (17). If these mechanisms fail, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited with a resultant inflammatory response. Perpetuation of this inflammatory response leads to pneumonia. There are 4 major histologic steps seen in pneumococcal pneumonia described by Tuomanen, et al (18): engorgement, red hepatization, grey hepatization, and resolution. Machine? Engorgement is associated with presence of bacteria in the alveoli and an associated serous exudate.

This then progresses to red hepatization secondary to leakage of erythrocytes into what cause students to dropout of college the alveoli. The next phase, grey hepatization, results from ap citation machine leukocyte migration to in Mahfouz's Trilogy, the affected area with intravascular fibrin deposition disrupting perfusion to the area. The final phase results in resolution, with phagocytosis of machine pneumococci and clearance of fibrin and other debris. Outside of the neonatal period, pneumonia is suspected in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of impairment of the lower respiratory tract. Distinguishing bacterial from other causes of pneumonia cannot be accomplished by clinical findings alone (7). Symptoms of pneumonia are nonspecific and include: fever, ill appearance, cough, fatigue, decreased appetite and Essay sometimes, abdominal pain. Signs of lower respiratory tract involvement include: tachypnea (greater than 50 breaths/minute in children less than 12 months, and greater than 40 breaths/minute for older children) (4), cyanosis, increased work of breathing (i.e., use of accessory muscles, grunting), pleuritic pain, and abnormal auscultatory findings. These signs do not differentiate a viral from bacterial process. A chest radiograph is used to machine, verify the clinical suspicion of pneumonia and characterize the disease process, but may not be performed on every patient. Viral respiratory tract infections are often associated with hyperinflation, perihilar peribronchial infiltrates, segmental or lobar atelectasis, and hilar adenopathy (19). Lobar consolidation and fluffy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more characteristic of bacterial infection (13).

However, there is overlap between these two groups (13). Computed tomography and ultrasound of the chest are used in special circumstances (e.g., evaluate for pleural effusion, adenopathy, improved imaging of lung architecture) but these are not routinely obtained (4). Commonly used screening laboratory tests such as white blood cell count with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and about the C-reactive protein (CRP) are not accurate in ap citation machine differentiating between bacterial, viral, mixed, or idiopathic causes of childhood pneumonia (7). Determination of precise etiology of pneumonia is difficult due to the lack of sensitive and specific tests. Many clinicians treat pneumonia empirically with minimal laboratory or radiographic evaluation and thus up to 80% of non-bacterial pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics (6).

This approach is satisfactory when clinical risk is deemed to mercantilism, be low. Ap Citation? When a more precise diagnosis is required, more invasive techniques are required. Bacteria found in the blood, pleural fluid (thoracentesis), or lung tissue is Best Teaching Life-Long Learners considered diagnostic in a patient presumed to have pneumonia (4). Blood cultures are only positive in 1-8% of pneumonia (11) but continue to be recommended (4). Some question the necessity of blood culture after cost-based analyses (6, 11).

Transthoracic needle aspirates, transtracheal aspirates, and open lung biopsy (the gold standard for diagnosis) are rarely performed due to the risk involved for these procedures (11,20), except in severe cases or in machine immunocompromised hosts (4). Sputum is often contaminated with organisms unrelated to the specific etiology (16) and is difficult to obtain in children less than 8 years old (4). Difference Between And A? A sputum sample that may be helpful is characterized by ap citation machine, many polymorphonuclear cells and a bacteria of difference between a nation and a state single morphology on gram stain (4). Bronchoalveolar lavage from machine bronchoscopy is difficult to interpret as well. The results are non-specific (i.e., higher neutrophil counts than lymphocyte counts in patients with infection) and the organism found may or may not be the etiologic agent (16). Bacterial serology and bacterial antigen testing are often difficult to interpret (4,6). Bacterial cultures of the nasopharynx or throat correlate poorly with lung tissue cultures and are not helpful in establishing a diagnosis (16). Specific viral antigen testing, along with cultures for suspected pathogens, serologies for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, and PPD skin testing for tuberculosis may be helpful (6). Pneumonia is Essay about treated with antimicrobials when the clinical suspicion for bacterial etiology is high. Greater pneumonia severity and machine findings that are consistent with bacterial pneumonia (e.g., lobar consolidation, leukocytosis, high fever) are more likely to warrant antimicrobial treatment.

Young infants, unreliable parents, poor access to medical care, and more severe infections often require hospitalization. Treatment of Essay about Thomas pneumonia is often empirically based and thus, information on machine, antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanisms of resistance is important to determine the most appropriate treatment. Philosophical In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy? For S. pneumoniae, the most common mechanism of machine resistance to penicillins is alteration of penicillin-binding sites that can be overcome with higher doses of the of the, drug (6). For macrolides, alteration to ap citation, the 50S ribosomal binding site of the macrolide inhibits binding of the antibiotic and thus, prevents protein synthesis inhibition (6). In addition, there is Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay examples also an increase in efflux pumps for macrolides and this property can be overcome by using macrolides that achieve high tissue concentrations at ap citation, the site of infection (e.g. azithromycin) (6). Philosophical Cairo Trilogy? Penicillin resistant pneumococci are often resistant to multiple drugs including macrolides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21).

Therefore, high-dose amoxicillin and/or azithromycin are recommended for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in ap citation machine children (6,8-9,11-12,20). Autobiography Trilogy Examples? Some clinicians will use clinical factors and ancillary tests in aggregate such as age, exposures, CXR pattern, fever, and leukocytosis, to stratify the risk to favor pneumococcus (high dose amoxicillin would be better) or Mycoplasma/Chlamydia (macrolide would be better). Ap Citation? For those children requiring hospitalization, a second or third generation cephalosporin, occasionally in combination with a macrolide, is generally recommended (8,20). Most treatment regimens are continued for in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy, a total of 7-14 days although this is based on little evidence (4). Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon, but particularly severe. S. aureus pneumonia usually results from inhalation of organisms, but it may also occur in patients with a cutaneous source (e.g., impetigo, boils, abscesses) with hematogenous spread or staphylococcal bacteremia from another source (e.g. Ap Citation Machine? osteomyelitis, central line infection). If S. aureus pneumonia is suspected, vancomycin should be started empirically. Culture and sensitivity data permits changing to an alternate antibiotic later.

Pleural effusion (empyema), pneumothorax, and Philosophical Cairo Trilogy Essay examples pneumatoceles often complicate S. aureus pneumonia. Pleural effusions can be classified in several ways. They can be a transudate or an exudate based on their protein content. A subpulmonic effusion versus an empyema is more clinically relevant. The former implies a transudate which is usually sterile, while the ap citation, term empyema is usually used to describe pus (purulent exudate) with a positive gram stain and culture. The overall outcome in children with pneumonia is excellent. The majority of children will recover without complications (11). Follow up chest radiographs are not required routinely, but should be performed for patients with complicated pneumonia, persistent respiratory problems, pleural involvement, and neonates (4,22).

About 80% of infiltrates on CXR will resolve by 3-4 weeks and the remainder will usually resolve by 3 months (22). Recurrent pneumonia with radiologic clearance between episodes requires further evaluation (e.g., immunodeficiencies, gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary anomalies, etc.) (4). Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory tract infections in young children (4,23-25). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of between a nation and a bronchiolitis, but parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus may also cause bronchiolitis (23-24). In the United States, the majority of RSV infections occur during the ap citation, months of what to dropout November to March (4,23). Ap Citation? RSV infections account for Best Teaching Life-Long Learners, a significant amount of morbidity and health care expense in the young age group (24). RSV is transmitted by direct contact with large droplets or fomites. Ap Citation Machine? Transmission can be limited by good handwashing (23). RSV bronchiolitis results from the spread of RSV to the lower respiratory tract after an Thomas Jackson incubation period 2-8 days where the machine, virus undergoes replication in the nasopharynx (23).

The infection results in about Thomas infiltration of the respiratory epithelium with resultant inflammation and necrosis, sloughing of the epithelium and increased mucus production causing airflow limitation in the small airways leading to machine, the hallmarks of the disease (23). Thus, affected infants have signs of airflow limitation including hyperinflation, atelectasis, and in Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay examples wheezing. The diagnosis is often made on clinical grounds during the ap citation machine, RSV season. Diagnostic testing can be done by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) tests if the diagnosis is unclear. Therapy is often supportive which may include: supplemental oxygen, fluids, and upright positioning. British Mercantilism? Aerosolized ribavirin is the only known proven therapy for RSV infection, but its expense, potential toxicity, difficulty of administration, and lack of conclusive evidence for ap citation, its efficacy (24,26) limit its use. The use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids are controversial and british may only be mildly effective at best (i.e., not been proven to be highly efficacious) (24-26).

For those with moderate to severe disease, helium-oxygen mixtures or nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in improving gas-exchange and symptomatology (27-30). Montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist, has recently been reported to make a difference in future wheezing episodes (31). Prophylaxis with palivizumab (RSV monoclonal antibody) or RSV-IVIG is given to select pediatric populations recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics during RSV season to reduce RSV infection risk (32). Growing premature infants and ap citation infants with congenital heart disease and other chronic lung conditions are at what cause students of college, increased risk for RSV pneumonia, apnea and ap citation machine respiratory failure. Healthy term infants with RSV usually develop mild bronchiolitis. Older children, teens and adults with RSV will usually have cold symptoms.

Bronchiolitis is usually a self limited disease and complete resolution takes about 4-8 weeks. In neonates and young infants, bronchiolitis may present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms, but the apnea is usually short-lived (33). Although bronchiolitis self-resolves, patients with RSV bronchiolitis may be predisposed to future episodes of wheezing (34). Difference Between A Nation? RSV infection can recur since there is an incomplete and poorly sustained immune response (23). In summary, bronchiolitis and pneumonia significantly impact the pediatric population. Determining likely etiologies of pneumonia and understanding effective treatment modalities will improve patient outcomes. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Edward Fong, MD, Leslie Barton, MD and John Mark, MD for their critical review of the chapter. 1. Which of the following is the most common cause of pneumonia outside of the neonatal period? 2. Ap Citation? S. pneumonia resistance to penicillins is due to: . . . . . Autobiography In Mahfouz's Cairo Essay? a. Production of beta-lactamase.

. . . . . b. Alteration of penicillin binding proteins. . . . . Ap Citation Machine? . c. Increased efflux pumps. . . Teaching Practices Life-Long? . Ap Citation? . . d. Low tissue bioavailability. 3. True/False: Nasopharyngeal and throat cultures are useful in determining etiology of bacterial pneumonia. 4. True/False: Lobar consolidation on on Detrimental of the War, chest x-ray provides conclusive evidence for bacterial pneumonia. 5. Ap Citation? Which factor does not appear to affect the etiology of difference and a pneumonia?

. . . . . Ap Citation? b. Vaccination status. . . . . . Best Practices Learners? c. Machine? Current antibiotic use. 6. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is: . . . . . a. Respiratory syncytial virus. . . . . . b. Human Metapneumovirus. 7. True/False: Bronchiolitis may initially present with apnea and mercantilism minimal respiratory symptoms. 8. Ap Citation? Treatment of bronchiolitis should include all of the following except: a. Supplemental oxygen for infants with hypoxia. b. Intravenous fluids and close monitoring of nutritional status. c. Good handwashing. d. Antibiotics. 9. True/False: Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are highly efficacious therapies for RSV bronchiolitis. Pneumonia case presenting with abdominal pain: Yamamoto LG. Abdominal Pain with a Negative Abdominal Examination. Best Teaching For Creating Essay? In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds).

Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1994, volume 1, case 3. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c03.html. Staph pneumonia case: Yamamoto LG, Young LL. Ap Citation? Tachypnea and Abdominal Pain. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 2, case 5. Philosophical In Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy? Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v2c05.html. Series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 3, case 20. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v3c20.html.

Another series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Ap Citation? Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1996, volume 4, case 5. Teaching Practices Life-Long Learners Essay? Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v4c05.html. 1. Graham NMH. The Epidemiology of machine Acute Respiratory Infection in Children and Adults: A Global Perspective.

Epidemiol Rev 1990;12:149-178. 2. Essay Jackson? National Center for ap citation, Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics report (www.cdc.gov) 2001;49(1):14. 3. Dixon RE. Economic Costs of Respiratory Tract Infections in the United States. Am J Med 1985;78(6B): 45-51.

4. Miller MA, Ben-Ami T, Daum RS. Chapter 39-Bacterial Pneumonia in Neonates and Older Children. In: Taussig LM, Landau LI (eds). Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, first edition. 1999, St. Louis: Mosby, pp. 595-664. 5. Best Teaching For Creating Essay? Dowell SF, Kupronis BA, Zell ER, Shay DK. Mortality From Pneumonia in Children in the United States, 1939 Through 1996. N Engl J Med 2000;342(19):1399-1407.

6. Bradley JS. Management of Community-Acquired Pediatric Pneumonia in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugate Vaccines. Ap Citation Machine? Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(6):592-598. 7. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count and Serum C-reactive Protein in Assessing Etiologic Diagnosis of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6): 484-490.

8. Autobiography Cairo Trilogy Examples? Nelson J. Machine? Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: Guidelines for Treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(3):251-253. 9. Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi MN, Jokinen C, et al. Difference Between A Nation And A? Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia: Serologic Results of ap citation machine a Prospective, Population-Based Study. Difference A Nation And A State? Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(11):986-991. 10. Ap Citation Machine? McIntosh K. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6);429-437. 11. Cause To Dropout Of College? Ruuskanen O, Mertsolon J. Childhood Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Sem Resp Infect 1999;14(2):163-172. 12. McCraken, GH Jr. Etiology and Treatment of ap citation Pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(4):373-377. 13. Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Soimakallio S. Comparison of Radiological Findings and Microbial Aetiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 1993;82: 360-363. 14.

Overturf GD, Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Technical Report: Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections, Including the Use of Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines and Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pediatrics 2000;106(2):367-376. 15. Brook I, Finegold SM. Bacteriology of Aspiration Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1980;65(6):1115-1120. 16.

Laurenzi GA, Potter RT, Kass EH. Bacteriologic Flora of the Lower Respiratory Tract. N Engl J Med 1961;265:1271-1278. 17. Green GM, Kass EH.

The Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in the Clearance of Philosophical Autobiography Trilogy Bacteria from the Lung. J Exp Med 1964;119:167-175. 18. Tuomanen EI, Austrian R, Masure HR. Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Infection. N Engl J Med 1995(19);332:1280-1284. 19. Wildin SR, Chonmaitree T, Swischuk LE.

Roentgenographic Features of Common Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:43-46. 20. Hart CA, Duerden BI. Respiratory Infections. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:903-914. 21. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al.

Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1917-1924. 22. Grossman LK, Wald ER, Nair P, Papiez J. Roentgenographic Follow-Up of Acute Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1979(1);63:30-31. 23. Hall CB.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344(25):1917-1928. 24. Greenough A. Machine? Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Management, and what cause students to dropout of college Prophylaxis. Curr Opin in Pulm Med 2002;8:214-217. 25. Jartti T, van den Hoogen B, Garofalo RP, et al.

Metapneumovirus and Acute Wheezing in ap citation Children. Lancet 2002;360:1393-1394. 26. Patel H, Platt RW, Pekeles GS, Ducharme FM. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of of the Vietnam Nebulized Therapy with Epinephrine Compared with Albuterol and Saline in Infants Hospitalized for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis. J Pediatr 2002(6);141:818-824.

27. Ap Citation Machine? Hollman G, Shen G, Zeng L, et al. Autobiography In Mahfouz's Trilogy Essay? Helium-Oxygen Improves Clinical Asthma Scores in Children with Acute Bronchiolitis. Machine? Crit Care Med 1998;26(10):1731-1736. 28. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Heliox Therapy in Jackson Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis. Ap Citation Machine? Pediatrics 2002(1);109:68-73.

29. Beasley JM, Jones SEF. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Bronchiolitis. British Medical Journal 1981;283:1506-1508. 30.

Soong W, Hwang B, Tang R. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by Nasal Prongs in Bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:163-166. 31. Bisgaard H for about Thomas, the Study Group on Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A Randomized Trial of Montelukast in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383. 32. Halsey NA, Abramson JS, Chesney PJ, et al.

American Academy of Pediatrics: Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Indications for the Use of Palivizumab and Update on ap citation machine, the Use of Essay about Thomas RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 1998;102(5):1211-1216. 33. Bruhn FW, Mokrohisky ST, McIntosh K. Machine? Apnea Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Young Infants. Difference Between And A? J Pediatr 1977;90:382-386.

34. Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Infancy is an Important Risk Factor for Asthma and Allergy at ap citation machine, Age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1501-1507. Answers to questions. 1.c. Overall, viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in children; however, the incidence of viral pneumonia decreases with age, becoming less common in older children and between a nation state adolescents.

4.False. Lobar pneumonias are more likely to be of bacterial etiology, but this is not definitive since some lobar pneumonias will still be viral.

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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the ap citation, introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in Learners the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of ap citation paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Teaching Practices For Creating Life-Long Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of ap citation published articles.

It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the Essay about Jackson, paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to machine, insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence.

Provide overview of method, results, and british discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. Ap Citation Machine. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in Effects of the War a way that sets the stage for your study and machine why you conducted it. Of College. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for machine constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to Best Teaching Practices For Creating Life-Long Learners Essay, sleep by machine, beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. Philosophical Autobiography In Mahfouz's Cairo Essay Examples. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read.

Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to ap citation, begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area.

Although you won’t go into Teaching For Creating Essay the details of your study and hypotheses until the machine, end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Difference Between A Nation And A. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to ap citation, your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay, ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in ap citation 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Autobiography in Mahfouz's Essay examples 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to ap citation, present first, second, third, and so forth, and Best Practices Life-Long Learners Essay think about how you want to transition between ideas. Machine. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader.

The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. What Cause Of College. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in machine methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual).

Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the in Mahfouz's Cairo Essay, other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the machine, research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an british, APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in ap citation a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. British. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in machine which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the.

Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy Essay examples age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out machine, when they begin a sentence. How were the Cairo Essay, participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience.

Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. Ap Citation Machine. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in Philosophical examples a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the machine, paper and difference between a nation and a pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the ap citation machine, computer, and so forth. Difference A Nation And A State. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to ap citation machine, 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth.

Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .”

(labeled, flush left, bold) Include an difference between a nation, apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?

If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Machine. Don’t forget to include brief statements about Autobiography in Mahfouz's examples informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.

If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for ap citation machine descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the difference between a nation, number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for ap citation machine an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of Trilogy examples degrees of freedom ( N 2 for machine a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and difference a nation and a state 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. Machine. For correlations, be sure to report the in Mahfouz's Essay examples, r 2 value as an assessment of the ap citation machine, strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. Life-Long. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Ap Citation Machine. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for what cause students to dropout of college pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the ap citation machine, presentation of all the Best Teaching Life-Long Learners Essay, statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). Ap Citation Machine. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph).

Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. What Cause Students Of College. It may be useful to ap citation, include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and Philosophical Autobiography in Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. Ap Citation Machine. However, if you use a figure to Learners Essay, represent your results, you may wish to report means and ap citation standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the what students of college, trends shown in the figure.

Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for ap citation the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to Best Teaching Practices Life-Long Essay, interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the ap citation, specifics and mercantilism work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings?

How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the machine, literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in about Jackson (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Machine. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from For Creating, others in the literature.

What are the limitations of the machine, study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. About Thomas Jackson. What additional questions were generated from ap citation, this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic?

What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for Effects of the Vietnam War a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. Machine. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. Essay On Detrimental. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to machine, larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by british, reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature.

(labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an machine, alphabetical listing of the and a, references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. Machine. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the about Thomas Jackson, journal name and volume are italicized.

If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Ap Citation. Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. British. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.

2, pp. 599-658). Ap Citation Machine. New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced.

If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and Best Practices Life-Long brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the ap citation machine, IVs/predictor variables and the DV.

Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to british, include the machine, authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the Autobiography Cairo, sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the ap citation, citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to Essay on Detrimental Effects of the War, include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions.

For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the ap citation, source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the For Creating Essay, first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is machine cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in For Creating Learners another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of ap citation Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in Essay about Jackson your.

papers; in ap citation other words, try to Essay on Detrimental of the War, find the primary source and machine read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Philosophical in Mahfouz's Trilogy, Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .