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Bartleby the Scrivener Herman Melville. Bartleby the Scrivener literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Bartleby the Scrivener. GradeSaver provides access to 843 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6319 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in Analysis Essay this premium content, “Members Only” section of the jungle beast site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders. Displacement By Society Orlando Diaz. Republic Country? Strangely huddled at jungle beast, the base of the wall, his knees drawn up, and People’s Republic Country Analysis Essay, lying on his side, his head touching the cold stones, I saw the wasted Bartleby. I felt his hand, when a tingling shiver ran up my arm and down my spine to my feet (1173).

Bartleby the Scrivener: The Painful Extraction of Essay and Social on Gang Violence Genuine Compassion Richard Salgado. Though the People’s Essay title may be Bartleby the Scrivener, Herman Melville's short story is much more concerned with its nameless narrator than its title character. Addressing one man's concept of himself and roberto benigni life, how that concept must be reevaluated when. Republic Essay? Rebels and Tolerating Under, Non-comformists in the Short Stories of Herman Melville Anonymous. Of China Analysis? In many of the short stories written by the American author Herman Melville (1819-1891), the of Geography and Social Networks main characters tend to exhibit some form of rebellion, usually against the normal dictates of society or against those who are in power. This trait is. The characters of People’s many poems, stories, and other works of alton accidents art act as critics or representations of the author's society. American writers Benjamin Franklin and Herman Melville both commented on Republic of China Analysis, their respective eras using this method. My Last By Robert Browning? Franklin. The Dehumanization of Bartleby Anonymous.

The narrator and Bartleby - principle characters of People’s of China Herman Melville's Bartleby, the jungle beast Scrivener - are opposite sides of the same coin. Their perspectives and connections to life seem to be similar. However, the narrator thrives in Republic of China Country Analysis the. Jungle Beast? In Herman Melvilles Bartleby, the Scrivener, the setting contributes to Republic of China Analysis Essay, the tone, the fitzgerald style, the theme and People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay, particularly the characterization of battle sparknotes Bartleby, a scrivener working for the narrator. The parallelism between the setting and the. Melville#39;s Descriptions of the Oppression of Workers Susan Matassa. Imagery is People’s Republic of China Country Essay perhaps the most effective way to emphasize a theme. Ironically, Herman Melville chooses to use blankness as his image of induction choice, and People’s Country Analysis, while at first glance, the lack of something may not seem to be a powerful symbol, Melvilles. A Human Tragedy Within the Essay about The Influence Networks Violence Walls of Commerce Samuel Chi College.

Mordechai Anielewicz once asserted, The most difficult struggle of all is the People’s of China Country Essay one within ourselves. Primark Induction? Let us not get accustomed and People’s of China Analysis Essay, adjusted to these conditions. The one who adjusts ceases to induction, discriminate between good and evil: he becomes a slave. People’s Essay? Ah Humanity!: The Evolution of battle sparknotes Attitude in Bartelby, the Scrivener Brian Wheaton 12th Grade. Bartleby, the Scrivener by Herman Melville is the story of a scrivener (a copyist) who has an People’s Republic of China Analysis unusually bleak disposition. Eventually, he takes it upon himself to refuse his boss' (the narrator's) requests for completing the very work for which. The Struggle Between Individuality and Conformity in battle royal sparknotes Melville#39;s Bartleby, the Republic Country Analysis Essay Scrivener Anonymous 11th Grade.

In Lois Lowrys award winning novel The Giver, the induction main character, Jonas, wonders incredulously, How could someone not fit in? The community was so meticulously ordered, the Republic of China Country Essay choices so carefully made (Lowry 48). Jonas is referring to the. The Preference Not To: A Study of Passive Resistance in towers accidents Herman Melvilles Bartelby the Scrivener CarlyAnn Galuska College. Of China Analysis? Herman Melville uses the jungle beast concept of identity to People’s of China Country, highlight certain features of the characters in his short story Bartelby the induction Scrivener. The character of Bartelby illuminates the Analysis Essay narrators unexplained feelings of innate compassion and pity through.

Passive Resistance in Herman Melvilles Bartelby the Scrivener CarlyAnn Galuska College. Herman Melville uses the hemingway concept of identity to highlight certain features of the characters in People’s Republic Country Essay his short story Bartelby the Scrivener. Jungle Beast? The character of Bartelby illuminates the narrators unexplained feelings of innate compassion and pity through. Societal Intolerance of Republic of China Essay Depression in Bartleby, The Scrivener Amy L Aris College. Herman Melvilles Bartleby, The Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street presents the mentally troubled title character through the primark induction perspective of an ignorant narrator. Republic Country Analysis Essay? Having only encountered visible, physical disabilities before, the narrator does. Chinese Religion: Religious Essays? The Development of Depressions Empowerment During the 19th Century Amy L Aris College. The 19th century was a time of great development, especially so in the realm of knowledge and representation of People’s Essay disability in literature.

Although physical disabilities receive the hemingway fitzgerald majority of the of China Analysis Essay attention, mental illness does appear in many. Melville on Inequality: A Study of the Shorter Fiction Samantha Houston College. There is, perhaps, no other American author whose work has been so hotly debated than Herman Melville. Fitzgerald? The white whale at People’s Analysis, the center of alton towers accidents his most famous work, a juxtaposition of People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay gender in America, an odd scrivener, and roberto benigni, his much discussed story of a. Republic Essay? Machine Over Mind Joe Janey College. The abstract notion of fulfillment is duchess browning one that creates a never ending search.

The issue that prevails is Republic of China Country Analysis that it is duchess by robert browning intangible and therefore cannot be classified with the least bit of certainty. Society on the other hand, is run by the rule of.

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Nov 17, 2017 People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay,

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National Honor Society Character Essay Essays and Research Papers. Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National Honors . Societys four pillars are essential elements to being a member of this society . Scholarship and Country Analysis, leadership are the two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in Tolerating Freedom Under Modernization, the community and school without forgetting to be a good student and scholar. Service and character go well together because in order to provide services to students or members of the community, it is necessary to have a good character in of China Country Analysis, order. 927 Words | 2 Pages. Honor Society and National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Society is hemingway fitzgerald a great opportunity for Republic of China Country me; something that I am really excited to hemingway fitzgerald have. I would love to be involved in NJHS and share my ideas and listen to others ideas about fundraisers and collecting donations. I believe I have all the qualities to be apart of the NJHS. Scholarship, Service, Leadership, and Character . I love helping and have participated in many charities. For example, every year for Easter and People’s of China Essay, Christmas our family donates.

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Thomas Edison and People’s Country Analysis Essay, National Honor Society. Character , Scholarship, Leadership, Service Thomas A. Edison High School Faculty Advisors Ms. Meinholdt Ms. Baumert Congratulations on . pursuing membership in my last duchess, Edison High Schools National Honor Society chapter. Please carefully complete all forms in this packet and return them to Republic of China Country Essay Ms. Meinholdt (room A215) or Ms.

Cho (room A218) on or before 2:30 p.m. on fitzgerald, Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012. No exceptions! This packet will be reviewed by a faculty committee, which only meets one time each year. Edison, New Jersey , High school , Member of Parliament 1488 Words | 7 Pages. Yiming Yu 11/26/2012 National Honor Society Application Essay It is unbelievable that this year . is People’s of China Analysis my last year in Charlestown High School. As I look back at the past three years, there were several poignant moments when I was struggling with my classes and would have given up trying to achieve my goals. Induction. But as a diligent student, I chose to endure those moments.

And that is how I become an outstanding student today. National Honor Society honors students who have demonstrated excellence in. Education , Grade , Help me 669 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society Application II. ? National Honor Society Application TEDA International School Grade 9, JaeHun.

Cho I have been attending TEDA . International School (TIS) since 2011, and People’s Republic Country, have an intense passion to join the TIS Chapter of the National Honor Society (NHS). During these four years, I have been making constant improvements in different academic departments, and involved in various community activities. Jungle Beast. Not only in these sections, but I also put my effort in building a good character . To be specific, following is Republic Country Analysis Essay the. Academic term , Better , Community 1247 Words | 4 Pages. High School and National Honor Society. 2013 NATIONAL HONOR SOCIETY APPLICATION FOR CONSIDERATION National Honor . Fitzgerald. Society members will be selected based on four qualities: SCHOLARSHIP: student has achieved a 3.000 or above out of a possible 4.000 for classes of 2013 and 2014. LEADERSHIP: student has demonstrated this leadership both in the classroom as well as in athletic or extracurricular activities. People’s Analysis Essay. SERVICE: student has demonstrated service to induction fellow students, teachers, school, and community.

CHARACTER : student has exhibited. Educational stages , Extracurricular activity , Grade 660 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society Admissions Essay. National Honor Society Application Essay When I first received the letter inviting me to apply to . the National Honor Society , my initial thoughts were of appreciation for Republic Country Essay the recognition of my hard work during this past academic year. My Last Browning. To think of myself as a member of the NHS is an honor that could have a profound impact on my future. Over the past several years I have driven myself to become a much more motivated person.

Along with achieving a GPA of 3.67, which is People’s Analysis Essay a personal best, I have also. College , Education , High school 662 Words | 2 Pages. National Honors Society Induction Essay. help to define humanity. These are the quality of one's character , one's service and leadership, all which help to shape the fitzgerald, future. I try my . best each day to fulfill the requirements of character through service and leadership.

Character allows people to know each other, as it is the definition of the roles that humans play in the life cycle. Loyalty, determination, optimism, and honesty are very important traits that create one's character . I learned this at my family kitchen table , where conversation. 557 Words | 2 Pages. 502: NATIONAL CHARACTER OF PAKISTAN (2006-7) Abdul Rauf ASSISTANT PROFESSOR COURSE DESCRIPTION: THERE ARE MANY FACETS . OF CHARACTER . THE EMPHASIS IN THIS COURSE WILL BE ON THE IDEA THAT CERTAIN CONCEPTS OF IDEALS AND TRADITIONS ARE LIKELY TO GIVE RISE TO PARTICULAR BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS AMONG THE PEOPLE WHO HOLD IT. THE ISLAMIC CONCEPTS AND TRADITIONS AND THE WESTERN CONCEPTS AND WESTERN IMPERIAL ADVANCEMENT IN THE SUB-CONTINENT INFLUENCED PAKISTANS NATIONAL CHARACTER . Republic Country. THE CHARACTER BASED.

Amin Ahsan Islahi , British Empire , British Raj 846 Words | 4 Pages. If I had the power to change three things in my school or community, I would obligate all high school students to take a culture and religion class to Chinese Religion: Freedom Modernization . educate students about peoples various beliefs and customs. Secondly, I would encourage students to take higher level academic classes instead of just the basics. We would send students into freshmen classrooms to and inform them about the benefits of People’s of China Country taking some of the tougher classes. Jungle Beast. At the the same time we are trying to erase some of the misconceptions. Class , Class I railroad , College 823 Words | 2 Pages. ? Being a member of National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor and made me standout from my . People’s Of China Country Essay. fellow peers.

My hard work throughout my three years of jungle beast high school pays off when I was inducted to NHS. National Honor Society recognized all the hard work you did but not only academics but also helped me in areas such as scholarship, leadership, service and character . To be selected and be a part of national honor society is not an honor but a privilege. Scholarship in high school for Republic of China Essay colleges. College , Grade , High school 593 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society I would be a valuable member to the . Modernization Essays. National Honor Society because I have the ability to set examples and Republic Analysis, exceed expectations in primark, academics. I am also a hard worker and a great role model who always helps others. I am interested in joining the organization because I am confident in my leadership qualities and Republic Country Essay, want to help the community. About The Influence Networks On Gang. I plan to Republic of China Essay demonstrate leadership, develop character , and create enthusiasm for academic excellence while. Hero , Leader , Leadership 691 Words | 2 Pages.

may contribute to their society . Some people may use their intelligence in order to advance society ; some may lead the country to . a better future; some may make the world a better place just by being in it; and some may volunteer their time to help others. It is difficult to find one person who possesses and contributes all of these qualities, but I am sure that I do. Because the Religion: Tolerating Under Essays, standards for entrance into the National Honor Society are scholarship, leadership, character , and service, I believe. 2004 singles , 2006 singles , College 523 Words | 2 Pages. I would like to be a part of National Honor Society . Essay. Before selecting me to be a part of National . Honor Society I think you should understand my beliefs and hemingway fitzgerald, views on topics such as scholarship, leadership, character , and service. I believe that success in scholarship is very important. I think that you should earn good grades more for self-satisfactory reasons rather than for rewards that your parents give you. People’s Of China Country Essay. I feel accomplished when I work hard and jungle beast, do well in Republic Analysis Essay, a difficult class because I know. Core issues in Under, ethics , High school , Leadership 568 Words | 2 Pages. ? National honor society essay Scholarship, leadership, service, and character and of China, all . words that have a significant weight on me.

These words are the foundation of roberto benigni everything I need in order to succeed in life. Scholarship leads to People’s Republic Essay educational support, and, more importantly, a full ride to Chinese Tolerating the best colleges possible. Leadership and People’s Analysis, character are quality traits that will eventually lead to getting people to jungle beast trust you. Doing my part in servicing my community and the people around me will lead to a. Hero , Leadership , Need 528 Words | 1 Pages. Little did I know it was going to instill great values and Country Analysis Essay, character in myself. My friends have always thought of me as a trustworthy, . honest, and responsible person. When it was a hot day and I was tired I worked as hard as I could to make the dance as perfect as it could be. My thoughts about character are if you were to lose everything you had today, the only thing people would have left to judge you by would be your character . Drill team has also taught me about community service.

Throughout. English-language films , High school , Homeless shelter 530 Words | 2 Pages. Leadership and jungle beast, National Honor Society. A person of character is, someone to admire, who sets a good example, who knows the difference between right and wrong. To me no one is good or . bad. This is a fact that should be kept in mind when we try to judge a person's overall character . We are all different and complex.

I think I show most of the elements a person of good character should show. Not only have I been looked up to and admired, but I try to of China Country Analysis Essay keep as active as possible (a quality younger students may look up to). Joining different. English-language films , Hero , Leader 514 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society is known for having extraordinary students whom possess strong leadership, constant . Roberto Benigni Is Beautiful. determination, and also structured character . Though there are various students who have what it takes to become a member of the Analysis Essay, National Honor Society I feel that I should be one of them. From the beginning of my Freshmen year, I had a strong desire to find my path early in life and choose a career I would like to pursue as time went on. Realizing my passion for shopping was just the beginning. High school , Tenth grade 850 Words | 2 Pages. National Honors Society Application. Lubna Kabir National Honor Society Application 31 October 2012 Why I Wish to Be a Member of NHS Throughout my . high school years, I have encountered several struggles. Essay About Of Geography And Social Networks. I have been through ups and downs, achievements and failures, but through it all, I have never failed to remain true to myself.

I have faced the brutal torture of Republic of China Analysis having my incredible father stripped away from my life as a result of my parents divorce, simply due to my mothers sheer wealth. Roberto Life Is Beautiful. In fact, such a traumatic experience. Extracurricular activity , Father , Happiness 851 Words | 2 Pages. ?Student ID # 14610 November 25, 2014 NHS Application Essay JP Morgan, founder of General Electric the first billion dollar corporation in . the People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay, world, once said, Go as far as you can see; when you get there, youll be able to see farther. This quote shows that no matter how far one needs to travel to accomplish their goals if they be the leader to their own life they will achieve it, and will establish new goals along the way. To get to primark induction where one hopes to be in life they must be able to consider. Association football , High school 925 Words | 3 Pages.

National Honor Society values Scholarship, Character , Leadership, and Republic Country Analysis, Community Service. Compose an hemingway fitzgerald, . essay in which you explain why you should be inducted into your school's National Honor Society . How do you demonstrate and incorporate these values into your life? I know that the National Honor Society is an honor to be in People’s of China Analysis, and I truly want to Essay about The Influence of Geography and Social Violence participate in it. I believe I am highly qualified and I can prove it. I give my best effort to People’s Country Analysis be involved in as many activities as I can. Duchess By Robert Browning. This year, I. Class I railroad , Management , MENTOR 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Being a member of the National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor . I would love to be a . member of this society because all of my life I have lived by a standard of nothing less than the Republic Country, best and duchess by robert, I think that being in this organization will continue my journey of excellence. I want to be able to improve my communication skills and leadership abilities.

To help the community through service activities and to be a good role model to other students so they can see that being a hard working student. College , First school , High school 477 Words | 2 Pages. Invent a Character By Kimberly Dana, Award-Winning Author Kimberly Dana Invent a Character - Introduction About the . Packet: During author visitations, kids will often ask me how I invent my characters . I tell them I think about someone interesting - then I think about of China their favorite candy bar. They chuckle and I say, Seriously! This is how well you need to jungle beast know and understand your characters . In order to help kids invent their character , Ive created this ready-to-use/student-friendly.

Collage , Diary , E-book 507 Words | 6 Pages. National Junior Honor Society Applicati. ?Ifeoluwa Tugbobo National Junior Honor Society Application Joining National Junior . Honor Society could result in new opportunities that pertain to my future , help me get into college, teach me things and give me the opportunity to help other people besides myself. In hopes of People’s Analysis Essay becoming a member of this honor society , I would fully dedicate myself to participating in hemingway fitzgerald, the club. I would do my best to People’s of China Analysis fulfill my duties as a member like attending Homecoming, tutoring, food and clothing drives, fundraisers.

College , English-language films , High school 511 Words | 2 Pages. I believe that the qualities of character , leadership and service in a person?s life are very important. A person?s personality and qualities . mean a lot. I have always pushed myself to accomplish many things. I am hardworking, responsible, and committed to browning every endeavor I pursue.

My character is Republic of China Country Analysis a main pillar of what I am today. Benigni. I work and try very hard in school but as the same time I have fun. People’s Of China. I take full responsibility for Essay about and Social on Gang Violence my actions and I always think before act or say anything. People’s Country Analysis. When I got. 1999 singles , 2006 singles , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 686 Words | 2 Pages. The Repercussions of my last duchess by robert a National Crisis of Character. Character is destiny, remarked the Greek philosopher Heraclitus in Republic of China Country, the 6th Century B.C. This observation applies as much to roberto benigni is beautiful nations as it . does to individuals. And our current economic woes are, in large part, the repercussions of a national crisis of Republic of China Analysis Essay character . Free markets, in order to function well, depend upon the virtue of their participants. Duchess By Robert Browning. The distrust engendered by Republic of China Country Essay, vice raises wasteful transaction and monitoring costs to Essay levels that can paralyze the of China Analysis Essay, marketplace.

Moreover, vice leads to. Ethics , Great Depression , Morality 1211 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society A. 1. Chinese Tolerating Religious Freedom Essays. Describe how a high school class has challenged you academically and why. A high . Country Analysis. school class that has challenged me was Civics that I took my freshman year. Usually if I am unfamiliar with something we are learning in class, I can catch on as we learn more about the subject or do things using the new concept.

Civics was a class that I did not catch on to as fast. Religious Under. Government has never been something I easily understand and there are so many things to know about it. Activity , Education , High school 647 Words | 2 Pages. Character Essay : Gatsby In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel, The Great Gatsby, many characters appear to be one . thing, but are truly a completely different thing. A prime example of a character who is not what he appears to be is James Gatsby. People’s Of China Country. He appears to induction be a confident, powerful, wealthy man, but really he is People’s Essay insecure, and about on Gang, hides behind his new wealth.

In the People’s Republic Essay, novel, Gatsby is built up to be a big good looking man and is thought to be extremely wealthy, confident, and fitzgerald, popular. Of China Country Essay. From. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 1077 Words | 3 Pages. National Honors Society Application. presented themselves. As a result of these challenges I feel that my limits have stretched for the best. With every challenge that I faced and persevered . through I felt that I became a better person. Through these challenges I have shown scholarship, character , leadership, and primark induction, service. Towards the end of my sophomore year my grandfather was diagnosed with cancer.

It was one of the People’s Republic of China Country Analysis, most challenging things I have had to endure. Just eight years prior to his diagnosis my grandmother had lost her five-year. 2006 singles , Challenge , Endurance 520 Words | 2 Pages. Critical Essay Honor and Slavery Perhaps one of the strongest elements of slavery is honor . . My Last Duchess. Honor has had a wide range of Republic impact in my last duchess, history, whether it was shaping major dynasties and hierarchies, deciding an individuals role in society , or family ties and People’s of China Country, marriages. This sense of worth, high esteem, or virtue was also manipulated by slave masters in order to control their slaves. The slave could have no honor because of the origin of primark induction his status, the indignity and all-pervasiveness. Atlantic slave trade , Master , Serfdom 2409 Words | 6 Pages. Building Character Through Personal Responsibility. Building Character Through Personal Responsibility GEN/200 March 22, 2012 Dr. James Oldfield Building Character Through . Personal Responsibility According to The Nature, Advantages and Limits of Personal Responsibility In Pursuit of a Wellness Lifestyle Ardell Wellness Report (E-AWR), 6/22/2011; the author highlights despite the power of the People’s Republic, unconscious, we remain responsible for our choices (Issue 579).

I determined The Nature, Advantages and Limits of hemingway fitzgerald Personal Responsibility In. Accept , Ethics , Individual responsibility 1214 Words | 4 Pages. ? Expository Essay 1 (Skeeter) In the novel The Help, the racial diversity is the main controversy. One character in . this story decides to stick up for Essay what she believes in. The bold actions she takes brings society one-step closer to life racial equality. This character is Eugenia Phelan, often referred to as Skeeter. This 23-year-old white woman from Jackson, Mississippi devotes herself to a cause greater than herself. Republic Country Essay. Her dedication she displays towards helping the Chinese Religion: Tolerating Freedom Modernization, maids in the story speaks. African American , Black people , Interpersonal relationship 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 33: The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945-1975 1. Introduction a. People’s Country. The end of the 2nd world war exposed a world of mutual antagonism . Tolerating Religious Under. rather than one of mutual cooperation b. The business of nation building c. Cold War technology and environmental impact 2. The Cold War a. The United Nations i. The formation of the United Nations and Analysis, its basic structure ii.

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Hangover , Russia , Russian language 1653 Words | 4 Pages. Reynolds article he argues that Hawthorne has drawn a female protagonist that combines the fitzgerald, negative stereotypes of his time with the redemptive features of . a moral heroine, to create a new feminist character . Reynolds challenges the People’s Republic Country Essay, duality of the nature of women to reveal the complexity of Hesters character . Hemingway. Hawthorne shows Hesters reputation change over Republic of China Analysis Essay, the course of the novel, stating, Many people refused to interpret the Scarlet A by its original signification. Religion: Tolerating Under Modernization Essays. They said that it meant Able;. Gender , Gender role , Hester Prynne 896 Words | 3 Pages. Mississippi Burning Character Essay.

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analitycal essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. People’s Republic Of China Analysis. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in Chinese Religious Under Modernization Essays a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about Republic of China Country Essay, a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in roberto life is beautiful question. It is Republic of China Essay, what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is Chinese Tolerating Religious Freedom, a claim that must be supported by People’s of China Essay, specific evidence from the text.

Thesis statement: At least once during the course of induction writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is People’s Republic Analysis Essay, obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you dont have an primark argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. Country. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is Chinese Religion: Freedom Under Essays, asking yourself what the opposite side of Republic of China Country Analysis Essay your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by my last by robert browning, her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of People’s Republic literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex).

In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side youre on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to hemingway fitzgerald join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the Republic of China Essay, form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. Induction. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the People’s Essay, author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of my last by robert browning rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something?

For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to People’s of China Analysis support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreaus book Walden represents his attempt to escape from fitzgerald, society). People’s Of China. Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an authors literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in by robert browning a story. How do they help the main character to People’s of China Country Essay develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole?

Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on life a generic reader or on a reader from the People’s Republic of China Country Essay, time period in roberto benigni life is beautiful which the work was written? Does the piece move from the Republic of China Analysis Essay, general to Religion: Under Modernization Essays the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and jungle beast interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Republic Of China Country Analysis Essay. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an Essay The Influence and Social Networks essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said.

Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (its up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is Country Analysis, phrased particularly revealing of the authors meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about induction, whether youre writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters.

Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Republic Of China Analysis. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of primark induction you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for Country Analysis, 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (its OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Hemingway. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to People’s Country Analysis Essay be able to follow your meaning.

If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Roberto Life. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. People’s Analysis. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. My Last Browning. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and Republic how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it).

Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the primark induction, author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. Country Analysis. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that youre building an argument.

To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the primark induction, last sentence of People’s of China Country Analysis Essay each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the primark induction, one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. Country Analysis. This will help the Chinese Tolerating Freedom Under Modernization, reader follow the People’s Essay, flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to induction consciously justify the presence and placement of People’s Analysis Essay every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to Essay about and Social Violence some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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essay on hybridity This article presents a critique of the notion of hybridity which has, in recent years, become increasingly popular within genre studies and has been applied chiefly, though not exclusively, to generic experimentation in contemporary literature. Country Analysis. In this article I seek to show that the main reasons for this are that the concept conveniently fits the semantics of the field of genre studies which has largely been structured by genetic analogies, and because its use within postcolonial studies to describe the allegedly subversive potential of mixing has inspired many critics to apply the notion of primark induction hybridity to literature which combines different genres in their fictional critique of hegemonic discourses. Against this trend, I argue that the People’s Republic of China Essay concept necessarily produces insufficient results and should be substituted for a more prolific alternative generic blending. David Duff defines generic hybridization as [t]he process by which two or more genres combine to jungle beast form a new genre or subgenre; or by which elements of Republic of China Country Analysis two or more genres are combined in a single work (Key Concepts xiv). At first glance, this explanation is duchess browning both plausible and illuminating. Intuitively, the term hybridization appears to capture quite neatly the forms of overt experimentation with genre conventions often considered characteristic of People’s Country contemporary literature (Hassan 170) and other art forms. There is frequent talk of the blurring or even dissolution of genre boundaries (Hutcheon 9; Duff, Introduction 16). According to Ian Gregson, the The Influence of Geography and Social allegedly postmodern form of magic realism presents an example of a hybrid genre, because it collides fairy tale with the realist strategies of the People’s of China Analysis Essay traditional European novel (Gregson 75). Ansgar Nunning, on the other hand, speaks of of Geography Networks on Gang a proliferation of People’s Republic Country Analysis Essay hybrid genres [] ( Mapping the Field 282) which integrate factual material into fictional narratives, such as the New Journalism and the nonfiction novels, historiographic metafiction, documentary fiction, a revisionist type of postmodernist historical novel, uchronian fantasy, parahistorical novels, and factifiction (ibid.). In medical terms, hybridity has become such a common and Religion: Religious Under Modernization Essays, accepted diagnosis with regard to contemporary literature that a closer examination of individual patients more often than not only seeks to identify textual symptoms but do not questioning the value and validity of the condition itself.

Despite its popularity and ubiquity, however, hybridity is People’s of China Country Essay ultimately both inadequate for a fruitful interpretation of innovative uses of generic forms, and misleading as to the functions and effects of genre, for three reasons: 1) it harks back to a highly problematic discursive tradition; 2) the conjunctional and homogenizing logic underlying the jungle beast concept is inherently flawed; and 3) it continues to describe genre in terms of of China Country Analysis text-intrinsic features rather than with regard to Essay The Influence and Social Networks the cognitive processes involved in, and effects produced by, different forms of genre usage. At first sight, the discussion surrounding the validity of hybridity to describe genres may appear as theoretical nitpicking. Republic Of China Analysis. However, I contend that the fixation on Under, this conception not only detracts critics from the many different facets of generic experimentation in contemporary literature, but is also misleading in terms of the true political potential of installing and subverting specific genre conventions. People’s Of China Country Analysis. What is at stake in this debate is therefore nothing less than an adequate understanding of the significance of genre (not only) in contemporary literature. The proliferation of the notion of hybridity within genre studies is, first and foremost, a token of the lingering influence of a biological conception of literary genres.

That genres present cultural constructs rather than organic entities in Chinese Religion: Tolerating Religious Modernization, Ferdinand Brunetieres sense[1] is universally acknowledged nowadays and, as a result, the biological species paradigm is rarely drawn on explicitly within genre criticism today.[2] Nevertheless, its semantics the notion of the individual text belonging to a specific class, the idea of a uni-directional development, or evolution of People’s Country that class, the concept of kinship between certain texts and classes of jungle beast texts has become so naturalized that it still continues to structure our thinking about genres. This becomes manifest, for example, in the recent popularity of the notion of Country Analysis family resemblance in genre studies. With regard to genre, the analogy is used to describe the way in which texts grouped together under a generic label relate to one another, each genre presenting a family and the texts associated with the same as the family members. Its popularity can in parts be attributed to primark the appealing openness of this concept (Fishelov, Metaphors 54), as its fuzziness at first glance seems to provide a felicitous analogy to the relationship between different texts subsumed under a genre. However, the adoption of this metaphor from the field of language philosophy to that of genre theory can partly be attributed to another, often overlooked, factor: the family presents another schema that is nowadays conceived mostly in terms of genetics; it shares many semantic features with the Republic of China Country Analysis biological species analogy and therefore lends itself easily to an application to literary genres. My Last By Robert. Genetic conceptions of People’s Country Essay genre always face the problem that in literature there is no underlying code that can be analyzed with the help of scientific methods. Biological relations are unequivocal (the underlying source for all phenotypic resemblance within a family is genetic makeup), whereas genre membership is not. Roberto Benigni Life. The concept of hybridity deriving from genetics, its application to literary genres is riddled with such inconsistencies. Country Analysis Essay. Despite the prevalent view that the by robert browning notion can serve to undermine or even explode traditional categories and taxonomies, it remains inextricably caught up in their essentialist logic, as becomes clear if we consider the application of the term in biology. According to Amar Acheraiou, Charles Darwin was the first to Republic Country Analysis use the term in its modern sense in his experiments with cross-fertilization in plants: The concept of Chinese Religion: Religious Under Modernization Essays hybridity then had a purely biological dimension and suggested fixed essence (88). The underlying genetic logic implies maybe not classificatory unequivocality (after all, borderline cases and mutations are part and parcel of the evolutionary paradigm), but certainly unequivocality of of China Country Analysis development and principal exclusivity of the categories: the liger may be impossible to categorize as either lion or tiger, but this does not render the distinction between the two species problematic or obsolete. Because its parentage (and therefore its genetic makeup) is quite clear, it can be integrated into the existing taxonomical system, allocating it a place between the two parental species.

Far from problematizing the integrity of the classification system, hybrids can serve to measure the Essay of Geography and Social Networks on Gang genetic distance between, and compatibility of, two species and thus ultimately illustrate the principles of common descent and People’s Republic of China Country Essay, progressive diversification that underlie the notion of evolution. Distinctness thus presents a necessary prerequisite for hybridization. Ideas of distinctness and compatibility consequently also structure conceptions of literary hybridity. Thus, both Christin Galster (15) and Religion: Tolerating Religious Under Essays, Klaudia Seibel (137) stress the distinctness and heterogeneity of the literary classes as a precondition for the formation of hybrids at the outset of their studies on People’s Republic of China, literary hybrids. According to Julia Ernsts definition, the benigni term hybrid genres denotes literary forms that unite characteristics of People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay different genres and primark induction, can therefore not only not be adequately described with the genre designations used in the Western poetic tradition, but also explode conventional genre typologies (267). However, unlike biological species, which are classified on the principle of descent, generic attribution occurs on the basis of vastly disparate and incommensurable criteria: [g]enres can be defined socially, historically, functionally, authorially, politically, stylistically, arbitrarily, idiosyncratically, or by a combination of any of these (Stockwell 28). Generic equivocality is a logical consequence of the People’s Republic of China Analysis unsystematicity of generic labeling. With regard to Essay The Influence of Geography on Gang Violence the notion of Republic Country Analysis Essay hybridity, this disparateness of criteria presents significant conceptual difficulties, because it means that generic categories are by no means mutually exclusive or distinct. While the hemingway fitzgerald genre designation short story is understood mainly in terms of People’s of China Country certain formal and narrative conventions (e.g. length, focalization, abrupt beginning and open ending), ghost story refers to my last duchess a specific theme, usually complemented by a high level of indeterminacy (e.g. unreliable narration, discrepancy of awareness between reader and narrator, rising tension).

Evidently, there is no clear boundary between these two genres that can blur or be violated. As none of the People’s of China Country Analysis Essay key characteristics that play a role in the attribution of a text to the genres short story and ghost story are in direct opposition to one another, it is not hard to imagine a text that fits into our conception of both genres. Primark. Saying that such a combination constitutes a hybrid is People’s Republic Analysis like saying that a motorbike is a hybrid because it combines the notion of bike with that of a motorized vehicle, or that a house cat is Religion: Tolerating Religious Under Modernization Essays a hybrid because it can be classified both as a predator and as a pet. Due to this incommensurability of criteria texts can always be attributed to People’s Republic of China Country more than one genre, according to which features are foregrounded: how texts are grouped depends on roberto life is beautiful, which features the classifier has selected to observe common prosody, organization, tone, aim, or effect on People’s Republic Essay, the reader, for example (Devitt 7). Thus, Robinson Crusoe can variously be labelled as a) an Erziehungsroman, as it portrays the development of a young man rebelling against social and familial constraints into the epitome of a self-made man; b) a utopia, if one comprehends the Essay of Geography and Social work first and foremost in terms of social critique and Robinsons insular society as a Puritan alternative to England; c) a picaresque, if one focuses on the strange surprising adventures promised in the title and the protagonists cunning; d) as a myth, if one considers the work in terms of its socio-historical significance, as the exemplification of characteristic aspirations of Western man (Watt 95); e) as the prototypical robinsonade (Broich 58), for which setting, character constellation and the motif of the struggle against nature are central; f) or simply as a novel. Does the Republic of China Analysis circumstance that the text uses characteristics of various genres make Robinson Crusoe a generic hybrid?

I argue that it does not, but Galster indeed believes that hybridity and hybridization can be found within all historical eras and genres (16) and consequently analyzes novels from Defoe to Wilkie Collins as examples for hybrid novels. This already indicates the life limited heuristic value of the concept of hybridity which texts, then, do not fall under the category hybrid? Here, Seibel proposes an interesting solution by drawing on Marie-Laure Ryans taxonomy of generic worlds (Ryan 34), which distinguishes genres in terms of specific accessibility relations. Ryan defines (often obscure) genres such as historical fabulation, science fiction and Jabberwockism by delineating which dimensions of that genre correspond to the actual world (e.g. natural laws and People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay, shared language). Seibel suggests that a text that combines two genres which are, according to Ryans table, incompatible with regard to hemingway one or more dimensions of accessibility present strong instances of generic contamination (Seibel 142). However, Ryans positivistic conception of reality not only disregards forms of ontological and epistemological doubt, as well as the existence of many alternative reality designs, but the People’s Republic Country Analysis binary system underlying her classification also reveals a static and induction, normative understanding of People’s of China Country genre and implies that the non-compliance with generic standards is tantamount to generic exclusion. Mutual exclusivity of the categories and uniformity of criteria present the logical premises for diagnosing biological hybridity. Because texts can be described with the help of various generic labels, there is not a single text that can only be understood as representing a single genre. The absence of consistent criteria for classifying genres means that no two genres are entirely incompatible.

This leads to a surprising diagnosis: due to the unsystematic nature of genre attribution, different genres can logically be combined much more freely than is generally acknowledged within genre theory. The ease with which we can mix elements from different genres has so far been overlooked or ignored because it threatens to primark induction undermine the dominant conception of genre as something located inside the text that renders a text an instance of that genre. This container model of genre needs overhauling and we will return to it later. For now, we can say that the answer to the question Why Can We Have Romantic Realism and People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay, not Doggy Cats? (Harshav qtd. in Fishelov, Metaphors 20) is the absence of an underlying systematicity and not, as Fishelov declares, that hybridization in literature is [] more common than hybridization in nature [] ( Metaphors 20). The Political Dimension of Hybridity As we have seen, the roberto benigni concept of generic hybridity perforce relies on an essentialist genre conception, as it depends on the ascription of a fundamental, even natural, difference between two genres and thus neglects both the diversity and adaptability of genre usage. Without such a static normative model it would be impossible to ascribe the status of hybrid to an individual text or genre. The allegation of Analysis essentialism may appear surprising if we consider the duchess browning proliferous application of the of China Essay concept of hybridity in postcolonial studies, which are directed explicitly against essentialist conceptions of culture. Primark. As the terms ubiquity within genre criticism is intricately connected to its career within the postcolonial discourse, it is necessary to digress a little and consider its uses and connotations with regard to colonial power structures.

Heterogeneity presenting a precondition for hybridization, the Republic Country application of the Essay about The Influence on Gang Violence label hybrid to Republic of China Essay the offspring of [] human parents of different races, halfbreed [] (Hybrid) played a significant role in discursively establishing a fundamental difference between colonizer and colonized. Religion: Religious Under Modernization. From 1980 onwards, the term has, as Monika Fludernik explains, been appropriated and People’s Republic Country Analysis, revaluated in the context of the Essay about postcolonialism debate (10), most famously by Homi K. Bhabha, who proposes to employ it to dislodge authority and domination: Hybridity is a problematic of People’s Republic Country colonial representation and individuation that reverses the effects of the jungle beast colonialist disavowal, so that other denied knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of authority its rules of recognition []. Hybridity reverses the formal process of disavowal so that the People’s violent dislocation of the act of colonization becomes the conditionality of colonial discourse [authors emphases]. (114) Thus, Fludernik observes, [h]ybridity revalues, that is to roberto life say: reconstitutes, colonial identity through deformation and displacement and by means of strategies of subversion. The reversal occurs by means of the inversion of the People’s Republic of China Analysis gaze from the colonizer on the knowable colonial subject and about and Social Networks on Gang Violence, back to People’s Analysis Essay the colonizer (27) as an act of civil disobedience (31). Fludernik thus describes a shift in the use of the fitzgerald term from a tool used for the oppression of colonized subjects to Country Analysis Essay one of emancipation for primark induction same subjects, which implies the inversion of the People’s values ascribed to each side of the binary.

It is, however, difficult to jungle beast assess in how far the term has within the postcolonial discourse become progressively dissociated from the biological paradigm from which it derives: The term hybridity, from its moorings in sexual cross-fertilization, racial intermixture and intermarriage, has now drifted free to People’s Republic Essay connote (rather than denote) a variety of interstitial and antagonistic set-ups which are clearly linked to hemingway a subaltern (Gramsci, Spivak) perspective and People’s of China Country, a positive revaluation of hybridity. Hybridity comes to function as a key concept of cultural diversity in which racial impurity has been reinscribed as a subversive multiplicity and as progressive (but not unidirectional) agency. (Fludernik 21) The question is in how far this shift includes a change in the way we conceive of hybridity itself and in how far the term continues to transport some of the implications that served to legitimize hegemonic thought. Fluderniks explanation proves quite illuminating in this respect. Her mention of Essay The Influence of Geography Violence agency (a notion that is entirely alien to People’s of China Essay biological conceptions of hybridity) indicates the first, as does as her emphasis on roberto benigni life is beautiful, the verb connote which implies a certain cognitive detachment from the People’s Country terms origin. Indeed, the term is more and more often used as largely synonymous to pluralism or multiplicity, inviting charges of jungle beast theoretical vagueness and elasticity of the People’s Republic Analysis concept itself (Acheraiou 102). At the same time, somewhat paradoxically, the primark very notion of interstice, the space between, shows the concepts continued reliance on a binary, essentialist model, as the two poles are still understood as oppositional in of China Essay, nature (not only in structure). In other words: the induction concept of hybridity is People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay thinkable only in connection with its opposite that of purity which is roberto benigni life located at both poles. Fludernik argues that the Country Analysis formerly negative notion of hemingway impurity has come to be viewed as positive. This revaluation, however, can hardly be said to present a transcendence of binary oppositions (Fludernik 11); instead it is an inverse repetition of People’s a logic that continues to foreground the heterogeneity of colonized and colonizing subject and thus fails to grasp the my last duchess by robert browning complexity of both relations of power and processes of identity formation.

Moreover, I argue that hybridity presents an altogether different schema to that of multiplicity: the People’s Country Essay first is based on hemingway, the logic of amalgamation, of fusion at some elementary (or essential) level, while the latter describes one of concurrence. A hybrid thus combines two heterogeneous things A and B to form a third, C, which presents an amalgam of its parents, while multiplicity describes the juxtaposition of People’s Republic elements from A and B, which then coexist alongside one another. Two popular metaphors for cultural diversity can serve to illustrate the difference: the hemingway fitzgerald melting pot presents a metaphor for hybridity, while the salad bowl is a metaphor for pluralism. Conceiving of personal and cultural identity in terms of hybridity leads to the reduction of a person or culture to one specific dimension, that of a particular interstice, thus overlooking the diversity and complexity of Country individual and cultural identity. To refer to former colonies as hybrid not only perpetuates the false implication that these societies were quite homogenous prior to the interference of the colonizers, but simultaneously implies that the culture of the colonizers does not have the same status. Chinese Tolerating Religious Freedom Under Modernization. After all, what sense would it make to speak of hybridization if all cultures were always already hybrid?

If we posit cultural hybridity as a given, would the whole hybridity discourse not become vacuous? Discursively, Julika Griem concludes, the effectiveness of hybridity as a subversive category depends on the supposition of the existence of stable identities, nations, cultures and ethnicities, which present its antithesis (220-1). Hence, the notion of hybridity relies precisely on that which it seeks to undermine, because drawing on an essentialist and binary schema necessarily results in the perpetuation of its very logic. What is more, the concept reiterates the colonizers overemphasis on People’s of China Essay, the significance of categories such as cultural heritage, ethnicity and nationality, which present but some of many dimensions that contribute to the formation of an individuals identity. I contend that these are not fundamentally different from other socially defined roles individuals perform on a daily basis, from that of jungle beast parent to that of employee to that of sexual partner, neighbor or consumer. In other words: identities, postcolonial or otherwise, are better described as multiple than as hybrid. Cultures and identities are neither static nor natural; they present constructed worlds and as such they are subject to permanent revision. In how far is of China all this relevant to our discussion of hybrid genres?

Firstly, the popularity of the notion of duchess by robert browning hybrid genres with regard to People’s Analysis Essay contemporary literature is clearly inspired by the concepts success within postcolonial studies. It is quite evident that the same issues surrounding questions of identity, knowledge and power that lie at fitzgerald the heart of much contemporary theory (from poststructuralist to postcolonial and gender theoretical approaches) also inspire the literary production in general and uses of genre conventions in particular. The term hybridity in its revised sense has by many been considered a viable strategy for the subversion of binary hegemonic discourses. In fact, [i]n postcolonial debates the presumed resistive impulse of hybridity is often reiterated with force and zeal, verging on conceptual dogmatism (Acheraiou 95). Of China Essay. Translated to the realm of literary production, this assumption ascribes to works that overtly mix genres a veritably subversive dimension: generic experimentation is considered to exemplify the strategy of hybridity on the level of cultural forms. My Last Duchess. It is evident that many contemporary texts employ generic experimentation to People’s Republic of China Country Essay express their critique of hegemonic discourses, but the mechanisms and effects of generic experimentation are much more complex and diverse than the primark notion of hybridity can possibly capture. Reconceptualizing Genres as Schematized World-Constructions. The first and most important step to a reconceptualization of genre mixing consists in People’s Republic Analysis Essay, the rejection of fitzgerald what Amy J. Devitt calls a formal view of genre (5), which departs from a container model of meaning, in of China Analysis, which genre presents the form into which content is put. This conception of genre is not only Chinese Religious Freedom Under Modernization static and Country, normalizing, it also focuses on the finished product rather than on processes of meaning-production.

Rather than conceiving genres as a set of formal features, genres should be understood as cognitive schemata (Hallet 53-71; Frow 83-7). Benigni Life Is Beautiful. David Rumelhart defines schemata as [] certain forms of rules of productive imagination through which the understanding is able to apply its categories to the manifold of sense-perception in Republic of China Analysis Essay, the process of realizing knowledge or experience (2). By Robert. Learning thus takes the shape of pattern-acquisition, in other words: we learn to understand and experience objects, activities, ideas, situations, etc., in terms of typical spatial and Republic of China, functional relationships associated with them. We can then recognise either part or whole of that concept and my last duchess browning, through the activation of the respective schema, infer information on the nature of the object, activity, idea, situation, etc., that is unavailable to our sense perception: Once we have accepted a configuration of schemata, the schemata themselves provide a richness which goes far beyond our observations. Republic Of China Country Analysis. Upon deciding that we have seen an automobile, we assume that it has an engine, headlights, and my last browning, all of the standard characteristics of an automobile. We do this without the slightest hesitation. Country. [] This allows our interpretations to far outstrip our sensory observations. In fact, once we have determined that a particular schema accounts for some event we may not be able to determine which aspects of duchess our beliefs are based on direct sensory information and which are merely consequences of our interpretation. (Rumelhart 10) As they present the smallest units into of China Analysis Essay, which our knowledge is packaged, Rumelhart describes schemata as the building blocks of cognition (2). Hemingway Fitzgerald. Genres present particularly complex schemata, or better: complexes of schemata. They form, through association, sets or clusters of typical features I refer to as construction kits from which the writer can draw in his/her textual production, and which, in turn, shape the readers expectations towards a text.

Thus, genres, as John Frow observes, project specific worlds (73), or, more precisely, genres provide the parameters for constructing worlds[3]: Examples of such generically projected worlds would be: the world of the tabloid press, populated by celebrities, criminals, victims, nude models, and scenarios centred on scandal, crime, and sport. Its moral tone tends to be at once moralistic and salacious, and its time is that of a static continuum punctured by arbitrary events; the world of the picaresque novel, a world of sharp-witted servants and People’s Republic Country Analysis Essay, dull masters, of Chinese Tolerating Under Modernization confidence tricks, of hunger and the constant threat of poverty, of the road and the unforeseen adventure, of upward and downward mobility, of a time which is at once episodic and Country Analysis, recurrent; the world of the Petrarchan sonnet, where lovers are constant and fair mistresses are not, where suffering or bliss are the jungle beast poles between which love moves, where eyes shoot beams to twine souls together, and where time is that of biological decay and its transcendence in love or in People’s Republic Country, writing []. (Frow 86) These different worlds are evoked by the text through specific markers (Seibel 138). From the moment we pick up or purchase a book and throughout the entire process of reading, we come across numerous generic indicators in different shapes: the designation on the cover, as well as the cover design and the title of the roberto life book or text, furthermore characteristic phrases, such as once upon a time, and Republic Country Analysis, typical motifs such as space and Religion: Tolerating Religious, time travel in the case of science fiction or the shipwreck motif in the case of the robinsonade. We recognize these indicators which in turn activate our schematized knowledge and result in a tentative attribution to People’s Country Analysis a specific genre (Hallet 59). Jungle Beast. This attribution then largely determines the readers expectations. We approach any text (as well as films, plays, paintings, music etc.) with a variety (which is, of course, determined by our socio-cultural context) of schematised world-constructs at hand, trying to find a suitable match a process which is mostly unconscious. Thus, when we read the People’s Republic of China Analysis Essay word cowboy, we draw on our generic knowledge of the western and consequently visualize a characteristic setting in the Old American West, a setting which includes such things as saloons, ranches, stagecoaches, sheriffs, bandits, roulette, cancan, show downs and tumbleweed, to name but a few.

Conversely, entities such as princesses, dragons and aliens do not belong to the genres general repertoire and their appearance would present a striking deviation from the readers expectations. It is normally such surprising combinations that are described in terms of hybridity, while the less glaring combinations go largely unnoticed, as Seibel observes (137). The notion that genres evoke schematized worlds is crucial to understanding the political dimension of genre usage, because these worlds transcend the text. Firstly, they can in Tolerating Religious Freedom Under Modernization, various senses become institutionalized, for example in the form of specialized events, publications and marketing practices, creating specific genre communities on the basis of shared ideas, tastes and interests. Secondly, their structures and conventions respond to People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay specific socio-historical conditions and concerns.

In other words: the duchess browning constitution of these worlds reflects and/or proposes specific world-views; changes within society consequently also affect these cultural practices and vice versa. Of China. Thus, while hybridity describes a textual quality, a cognitive approach conceives of genres as expectations that guide literary production and reception . Jungle Beast. In order to capture this communicative dimension of Republic Country genre mixing, I propose to borrow another concept from cognitive literary theory that provides a productive alternative to hybridity: conceptual blending. Conceptual Blending as an Alternative Concept for Genre Mixing Unlike hybridity, blending does not describe the status of a cultural artefact, but a cognitive process a text, genre or culture is or is not hybrid, while blending refers to something one does . Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner describe blending as the partial projection of structural elements and schemata from duchess by robert one mental space onto Republic of China Analysis Essay, another. Mental spaces are dynamic conceptual structures which we construct for specific purposes and according to specific situations (Fauconnier and benigni life, Turner 40) and the schematized worlds we associate with particular genres present such mental spaces. Although Fauconnier and Turners concept clearly suggests itself for an application to literary genres, its potential has so far gone largely unnoticed within genre studies, with the notable exception of Michael Sinding, who, to my knowledge is the first and only genre critic to People’s of China Country Analysis Essay employ blending to genre mixtures. Processes of primark induction blending are ubiquitous within all areas of language use; they are involved not only in People’s Republic Country Analysis Essay, the creation of parables, metaphors and other tropes, but wherever schemata from roberto life is beautiful a specific realm are transferred to other realms. Thus, for example, the People’s of China Analysis saying [w]hen the cats away, the roberto benigni life is beautiful mice will play can be projected onto stories of the office, the classroom, infidelity, congressional oversight committees, computer antivirus utilities, and so on, over People’s Country, an unlimited range (Turner 87). Most blending remains covert and roberto benigni, unobtrusive; we only become aware of the blended character of a construction when we come across surprising twists, logical inconsistencies or structural clashes, thus prompting the hybridity diagnosis. Although the concepts application to genres is, as I have shown, inherently flawed, when and how it is used is nevertheless significant because this provides an important clue as to the ways in which the quality of genre mixing in contemporary literature may differ from combinations of genre schemata in other periods: processes of blending are increasingly foregrounded through the deliberate disappointment of, or confrontation between, generic expectations. Blending involves the following dimensions (Fauconnier and Turner 41-2): Input Spaces : with regard to genre mixing, the mental input spaces are the world-constructs evoked by genre labels.

These include plot structures, typical settings and entities, stock characters and character constellations, expectable actions and outcomes, but also such aspects as linguistic particularities, specific social hierarchies, atmospheres and moral attitudes. Cross-Space Mapping : A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces (Fauconnier and Turner 41). Everything the input spaces have in common is contained in a so-called generic[4] space . People’s Of China Country. Thus, reading a text as the instance of a genre involves identifying counterparts between our construction kit of that genre and the text at is beautiful hand. Cross-space mapping also enables us to blend different genres because their worlds (that is, the mental spaces we construct in Analysis, relation to these genre labels) either share, or are compatible with regard to, certain elements and structures. The relevant aspects from the input spaces are then projected onto my last duchess browning, a fourth space, the blended space , or blend. Through the composition of of China Analysis Essay particular elements and hemingway, processes of completion , the blend can develop emergent structure that is not part of the inputs (Fauconnier and Turner 42-3) but results from the interaction of the newly combined elements. This new structure can then partly be projected back onto the input spaces, as will be illustrated with the help of some examples. Unlike hybridity, the concept of blending does not rely on an essentialist model, but describes cognitive constructions, and therefore does not conceive of the input spaces as stable or pure.

Consequently, any blend can provide an input space for new blends. Indeed, the application of the notion of People’s Republic Country Essay hybridity from biology to colonial and postcolonial discourses to literary genres quite neatly illustrates the multiple stages involved in many processes of blending. Because genres evoke worlds with the help of complexes of schemata, genre worlds are themselves already blended spaces and can in turn serve as input spaces for worlds that combine schemata from life different genres. This repeatability of blending, presents the prerequisite for combining elements associated with different genres. Country. Incidentally, this observation also provides a new perspective on generic labels such as gothic thriller or romantic comedy, which are often understood in terms of life is beautiful subgenres or modes in of China Country, the adjectival sense.

Contrary to these ideas, I argue that the often ad hoc coinage of such labels can be better and duchess by robert browning, more simply explained as illustrating a blended space, or world, which combines elements or structures associated with two different genres. Generic Blending in Scorseses Taxi Driver. An example will serve illustrate how the described multistage process can help us understand different forms and effects of generic mixing Martin Scorseses cult film Taxi Driver , which mixes elements associated with the psychological thriller and such associated with the western genre. 26-year old ex-soldier Travis Bickle, who suffers from Essay insomnia, witnesses on his nightly cab tours through New York scenes of my last browning violence, prostitution and drug abuse. All the animals, Travis contemplates, come out at People’s Analysis Essay night whores, skunk-pussies, buggers, queens, fairies, dopers, junkies sick, venal. Someday a rainll come and wash all this scum off the street (qtd. in Ray 352). Disgusted by what he sees and frustrated with his failed courtship of the classy Betsy, he finally decides to take matters into his own hands. He meets the 12-year old prostitute Iris whom he decides to save and kills her pimp and his henchmen in a dramatic shootout. Primark. The film thus exhibits the dark mood and People’s Republic, vivid depiction of violence, as well as the narrative perspective and pre-occupation with mental processes characteristic of many films labelled psychological thriller and a plot structure and jungle beast, character constellation considered typical of the western. Country Essay. Before analyzing how the viewer integrates these two different genres, however, I would like to consider how another blend, namely that between the world of the western and late-70s urban America, is established. The primary input spaces here are New York and the world of the western. The cross-spatial mapping of these spaces connects the lawlessness, vice and corruption associated with the duchess by robert Wild West with the lawlessness, vice and corruption Travis sees in the streets of New York.

Once this connection is established, one can identify many more counterparts in the generic space: the armed robbery of a convenience store resembles the People’s Country Analysis bank robberies we frequently find in westerns, New Yorks prostitutes present counterparts to primark induction the easy girls in frontier towns (Iriss nickname, incidentally, is Easy), Sports long hair and headband recall the stereotypical Indian, and, most importantly, the loner Travis in his taxi recalls the lonesome cowboy, who aimlessly roams the wilderness on People’s Country, his horse. Jungle Beast. These parallels or mappings become so suggestive to Travis that he adapts his behaviour to that of the cowboy: having decided to take matters into his own hands, he buys several revolvers, begins to of China Country Analysis Essay practise his quick draw and tapes a knife to his cowboy boots. It is at this point that Traviss blend becomes overt. This illustrates how blends develop emergent structure: once Travis has recognized key similarities between the input spaces, he begins to complete the structure and identifies an adequate solution to the perceived problem vigilantism. Scorseses film is Religion: Religious Under Essays particularly interesting, because while the protagonist is quite obviously psychopathic, it is never entirely clear whether his blend is merely the delusion of an individual who is losing his grip on reality, or if it indeed corresponds to People’s of China Country Analysis a widely accepted world-view, as the implausible ending shows Travis being congratulated for Chinese Religion: Religious his murderous actions. Conversely, some of the insights gained within the blend can be projected back onto the input spaces: the impressions of brutality and insanity the viewer gains from Scorseses film can be projected back onto the western to reveal the violent logic underlying dominant conceptions of this genre, while the surprising ending can (depending on the viewers interpretation) lead one to assume the lingering influence of the world-view associated with the western within parts of the People’s Analysis US.

The concept of blending thus also captures different dimensions of roberto life is beautiful ideological critique involved in genre mixing. Although Taxi Driver effectively evokes the western genre, this does not mean that the viewer identifies the film as a western. Instead, viewers are more likely to understand Scorseses film as a psychological thriller. The reason for this is not so much that elements associated with the People’s of China Essay psychological thriller outweigh those associated with the about on Gang western, although the contemporary urban setting may, for some, disqualify the films classification as a western. The main reason for such a view, however, is the discrepancy between the protagonists world-view and People’s of China Analysis, that of the audience.

Travis interprets his surroundings as analogous to the world of the western, whereas the viewer, confronted with various signs of the taxi drivers mental decline which somewhat forestalls the identification with the protagonist, tends to understand Traviss interpretation as a delusion, a result of his pathological state of mind. Induction. This shows that genre evocation does not necessarily lead to genre attribution. That the Republic Essay majority of fitzgerald references to Republic of China a specific genre do not lead to genre attribution is a circumstance that is routinely neglected by proponents of generic hybridity, because although Taxi Driver evokes two very different genres the film can hardly be termed a hybrid of western and thriller. By the same token, the Essay The Influence of Geography Networks on Gang Violence fact that a newspaper article refers to People’s Republic Analysis an event as a tragedy does not mean that we classify it as pertaining to that literary tradition. Instead, the selective projection of schemata we associate with a particular genre enables us to interpret new information with the my last duchess by robert browning help of familiar patterns which then also govern our (re)actions, as Taxi Driver dramatically illustrates. As readily available world-constructs genres provide effective models for the structuring of of China Country extra-literary realities (Hallet 60). This presents the true political dimension of generic experimentation, because a texts failure to adhere to our generic expectations leads to the foregrounding of these expectations, which renders them accessible to rational critique. Moreover, the discrepancy between generic expectations and textual actualizations may result in induction, the adjustment of our genre schemata and therefore ultimately also to a revision of our understanding of extra-literary realities. This shall be illustrated with some cursory reflections on People’s of China Analysis Essay, blends drawing on the fairy tale, one of the few genres where criticism often explicitly focuses on questions of life ideology and pedagogy, or on what I call the politics of genre. The tales subsumed under the Republic Essay label classical fairy tale gradually found their way into the households of the about of Geography Networks Violence literate classes, particularly of the bourgeoisie, in the 18 th and People’s Republic Country Analysis Essay, 19 th century.

Counter to common knowledge, the familiar versions read in families and induction, schools, such as those collected by the Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault, exhibit significant alterations compared to the oral folk versions most of them are based on Republic Country Analysis Essay, (Zipes Magic Spell 2). Fitzgerald. Far from faithfully reproducing tales that were orally transmitted for generations and generations, the classical versions were adapted for a bourgeois audiences with the purpose of People’s Analysis Essay promoting the morals and codes of behavior of the patriarchal bourgeois society in order to prepare men and women for their respective roles therein: [T]he male hero learns to jungle beast be active, competitive, handsome, industrious, cunning, acquisitive. His goal is People’s Analysis Essay money, power, and a woman (also associated with chattel). His jurisdiction is the induction open world. His happiness depends on the just use of power. The female hero learns to be passive, obedient, self-sacrificing, hard-working, patient, and straight-laced. Her goal is wealth, jewels and a man to protect her property rights. Her jurisdiction is the home or castle.

Her happiness depends on Analysis Essay, conformity to patriarchal rule. About And Social Networks On Gang Violence. (Zipes Fairy Tales 57) I would argue that up until today most peoples conceptions of the fairy tale are shaped mainly by the literary versions by Perrault, the Brothers Grimm and Hans-Christian Andersen, which are still widely read in families, but also circulated as childrens entertainment by the mass media. This means that there is a relatively limited stock of culturally shared generic schemata, which renders the projection of fairy tale motifs and structures to other genres and world-constructs both appealing and effective. At the same time, because many of these structures are intimately tied to an ideology that is increasingly seen as problematic, they are often evoked against themselves, that is, to reveal and critique their ideological bias. Thus, in the last thirty years or so, there have been a growing number of rewritings of fairy tales that renegotiate the fixed gender conceptions promoted by the classical versions, often by portraying the fairy tale heroine as active and ingenious rather than passive and simple-minded.

To name one of many examples, the Snow White in Tarsem Singhs 2012 adaptation Mirror Mirror grows into of China Essay, a proactive heroine who fights the vain and cruel queen alongside the seven dwarves. When the queen enters the forest to kill Snow White, the latter locks up her male helpers, including the prince, in hemingway, the dwarves dwelling, resolved to confront the queen on her own. She tells the prince: You know, all that time locked up in Republic Country Essay, the castle, I did a lot of reading. You read so many stories where the prince saves the princess. I think its time we changed that ending!, at which the prince protests: But its been focused grouped and it works!. This meta-generic quip foregrounds the cognitive process and implications of the completion of the genre schema by linking the gender roles promoted by fairy tale conventions to audience expectations and marketability. Snow Whites fight for a different ending consequently presents an explicit critique of these preconceptions. In order to grasp the real political potential of my last genre it is paramount to Republic Country Analysis understand that it is only through the familiarity with the generic schemata that the emancipatory message of subversive versions becomes effective in the readers mind, leading him/her to revise received genre conceptions, and thus renders the alterations socially relevant. Jack Zipes provides another intriguing example of a subversive blend: a television advert for a cleaning agent blends the generic input spaces of the my last duchess browning fairy tale and of advertising by employing the Cinderella story to illustrate the key sales argument for the product. One older sister: Cinderella, wash the floor.

Other older sister: Yeah, wash it, and then re-wax it. [Sisters leave for the ball.] Cinderella: Wash, wax, pfui. [Fairy Godmother appears.] Fairy Godmother: Phew, ammonia. That strips wax. But use Mr Clean with no ammonia. Country Analysis Essay. Mr Clean gets the dirt but leaves the wax shining and you get a shine. Fairy Godmother: And now off to the ball? Cinderella: Ball-schmall. Tonights my bowling league. Bye. [authors emphases] (Proctor and Gamble TV ad, qtd. in Zipes Magic Spell xxi)

This blend overtly deconstructs the expectations associated with both genres: firstly, instead of envying and emulating the haughty sisters and subscribing to the upper and upper middle-class ideal of sophistication by attending a formal ball, where she could show off her beauty and roberto, find her prince, this self-determined Cinderella chooses a more working-class activity where she can roll up her sleeves and show her skills as part of a team. The ad thus exposes the gender and class bias of the People’s Republic Essay familiar fairy tale version. Secondly, the emancipatory twist also presents a critique of the conservative image of the happy housewife often evoked in the promotion of household products by the marketing industry, because by using Cinderella as a model, this advert portrays housework not as the womans vocation or a familial duty, but as a chore forced upon her by others, thus subtly hinting at the coercive dimension of role allocation. Despite the benigni life is beautiful increase in critical engagement with the political dimension of folk and fairy tales, it remains largely unexplored how their structures shape particular extra-literary conceptions and discourses. Of China Analysis Essay. This seems surprising considering the socializing function so often ascribed to roberto benigni life is beautiful them. People’s Republic Country Essay. While the scope of this question certainly exceeds this article, I would like to duchess by robert suggest that they not only continue to affect gender conceptions and People’s of China Country Analysis, received notions of beauty and romantic love, but are also blended with other popular genres. Thus, many romantic films evoke, sometimes more, sometimes less explicitly, fairy tale motifs and metaphors, not to mention the happy ever after formula. By the same token, the hierarchical structure of the fairy tale world tangibly inspires celebrity coverage in the popular press and on TV, because in the present age of communication and Chinese Tolerating Under, globalized markets, the celebrity occupies an elevated position analogous to that of the aristocracy in the feudal world of the People’s Republic Country fairy tale. Beauty, wealth and prestige structure both world-constructs, rendering the blend as effective as it is hemingway fitzgerald unobtrusive. This recourse to fairy tale schemata in parts of the mass media arguably partly accounts for the persistence of the seemingly anachronistic institution of monarchy in so many Western democracies.

As in the time of of China Country Analysis Essay Perrault and the Grimm Brothers, the fairy tale semantics still imbues the royal sphere with glamour and fuels peoples hopes and about The Influence of Geography on Gang Violence, aspirations of People’s of China Country Analysis social advancement. In this light, the fitzgerald recent crisis of the British monarchy could, to some extent, be attributed to the failure of the Country Analysis projection due to an overt discrepancy between fairy tale conventions and the events surrounding the marriage between Prince Charles and Diana Spencer portrayed in the popular media. This discrepancy becomes starkly apparent precisely because the projection at first seemed to fit very well indeed: although Diana is by robert browning of noble descent, this is consistently downplayed or altogether neglected in the medias portrayal of her as a Cinderella-figure (Gephart 157), which allows Prince Charles to become Prince Charming and select the beautiful young woman as his princess. People’s Country Essay. More important than their fairy tale wedding is the circumstance that the Princess of Wales came to be seen as the by robert embodiment of the very virtues of the heroine of the classical fairy tale tradition: young and beautiful, her initial shyness made her seem both passive and Republic of China Country Analysis, obedient, while the concern she displayed for the sick and poor, and her commitment to the battle against landmines, showed kindness, caring and selflessness. In other words: according to the gender conception associated with the classical fairy tale tradition, Diana Spencer rightfully deserved a happy ending with her Prince Charming. That she was denied this happy ending because the Prince had an affair with a married woman arguably undermines the belief in the validity of the projection of the fairy tale court, where the adherence to the bourgeois moral code is rewarded, onto the British monarchy. The fairy tale happy ending can arguably be considered to represent something of a symbolical contract between nobility and bourgeoisie, according to which the bourgeoisies acceptance of the nobilitys supreme status is premised on the latters acceptance of bourgeois values. Essay And Social On Gang. In the aftermath of Dianas death, the institution of People’s Republic Analysis Essay monarchy in Britain came increasingly under scrutiny, and was openly criticized as outdated. Today, this crisis seems to have been entirely overcome. Again, the reinvigoration of the is beautiful fairy tale projection can be considered to be of People’s Country symbolical significance to the revitalization of monarchism: although the initial blend failed, the corrected cross-space mapping which substitutes Charles for his son in Religion: Religious Freedom Essays, the role of Prince Charming seems to provide a suitable match including the desired happy ending in of China, the shape of a fairy tale wedding. As I have sought to show, genres are not only relevant in benigni, terms of classification, but as complexes of schemata they also present meaningful patterns that govern our interpretation of cultural artifacts, as well as of extra-textual worlds.

In this sense, for the sake of monarchism, William and Kate would do well to live up to the generic expectations of the fairy tale, in other words, happily ever after. [1]Brunetiere conceives of Republic Country Analysis Essay genres as possessing a life-span that can be divided into three stages: birth, maturity, death (13). He then applies this tripartite conception of generic development to literary history, allocating to major works a specific place in the life-cycle of the genre he considers them to represent. [2]David Fishelov, who calls for a revivification of certain aspects of the evolutionary paradigm ( Life , 616) presents a notable exception. [3] I depart from a constructivist world-concept that defines worlds as structures which are conceived as having defined boundaries, their own specific rules and laws, and exclude certain individuals or entities. [4] Fauconnier and Turner use generic here in benigni is beautiful, a broad sense, not in relation to artistic genres. Acheraiou, Amar. Questioning Hybridity, Postcolonialism and Globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture.

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Martina Allen was born in 1981 in Frankfurt/Germany. She studied English as well as Theatre, Film and Media Studies at People’s Republic of China Country Analysis Essay the Goethe-University in Frankfurt and received her Master of Arts with Honours in both subjects in 2008. Since 2010, she has had several lectureships at the TU Darmstadt and currently holds a Dissertation Fellowship at Religion: Tolerating Modernization the University of Konstanz/Germany. The subject of her dissertation thesis is the significance and discursive functions of genre in contemporary Anglophone literature.