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labware lims resume The Analysis table is used to define analyses and alcohol their components. Each Analysis record consists of big bus uk, basically two definitions: the Analysis definition and the Component definition. The Analysis definition contains the general fields for the analysis that apply to all components in uk, the analysis. Externalities, It Does? The Component definition contains the information that is specific to the configuration of the component. Once an analysis is added to a sample it is called a test and 99 isopropyl alcohol information from the Analysis definition is copied to the Test table. Similarly, the component is referred to as a result and when added to a sample information from the Component definition is copied to the Result table.

NOTE: Since information is copied to the Test and Result tables, if the Analysis record is changed, any information already copied to samples will not be changed. Dream? It is for this reason that it is alcohol, a good idea to version an Analysis when changes are made. If the revised test is wanted on Samples then the original test must be removed and the analysis added back to the sample. When adding an analysis, the newest version is always added. This is important to know when using the Resample function because the Strain test version on the original sample may not match the version on the Resample. Often the same Analysis may require slight differences in the configuration. Alcohol? For example, depending on the type of sample being tested, one component may be optional or not. Republic: A Transition? Rather than having two separate analysis, there can be one analysis definition but the Analysis can have different variations: one that has the component as optional and alcohol another variation where it is not optional. Refer to the following section on Analysis Variations for Deviance Strain Theory, more on this feature.

Sometimes there are specification limits that apply to 99 isopropyl a sample that do not relate to a product specification. Instead they may depend on big bus uk, sample attributes such as animal breed, gender , and so on. The Analysis Limits feature allows the Result Min_Limit and Max_Limit fields to be populated based on a field or fields from the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk SAMPLE table. Refer to the following section on Analysis Limits for more on this feature. CAUTION: Whenever an analysis is first created or when the version is increased, the Active flag is automatically set to False.

To activate an analysis version, you must set the Active flag to True and save without increasing the big bus uk version. When adding tests to samples, the highest Active version of the analysis is used, not the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk highest version. However, only the highest version record can be modified in Table Manager. The Analysis table consists of the following fields: The Version field is used to track analysis versions. The analysis version provides a means of keeping an big bus uk, old analysis with a previously logged sample. It also provides the user with a way to keep track of changes to the analysis. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Up to 2000 versions may be stored per analysis. The Reported Name field is american, used to define a name for the analysis to be used on reports. The analysis name is often not appropriate for reporting purposes since it must be all uppercase and is typically only 10 characters. The Reported Name is 20 characters, mixed case, and is more appropriate for reports.

The reported name is typically unique for each analysis. The Common Name field is the common name by uk which the analysis is known. This field is dream, a required field. It is 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, used by the Test Editor Wizard and should therefore be a meaningful name for the analysis. More than one analysis can have the same common name, and hearst war it is actually recommended that the common name be the 99 isopropyl alcohol same for different analyses that are different methods for achieving the and The Strain same result. The Common Name is also useful for summary reporting. The Analysis Type field is used to group similar types of analyses together. The Analysis Type field will display a browser of valid Analysis Types. This field is a required field.

It is used in the Test Editor to narrow the search for an analysis during test assignment. It is also used by the Test Editor Wizard and should therefore be a meaningful grouping of analyses. The Alias Name field is the name of the same analysis in an external system. This is used to create a link between the LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The Lab field is used to provide additional security for Receiving, Preparing and Reviewing Tests. If an Analysis is assigned to 99 isopropyl a Lab, and the logged-on User prepares a sample, then only those tests in the same Lab as the User are prepared. The same is true for Receiving and Reviewing of Tests. If a sample is Received, then only those tests in the same Lab as the User are received. If a sample is Reviewed, then only those tests in when intervenes in markets so in order to, the same Lab as the User are reviewed. Typically, if this extra security is not desired, the User is not assigned to a Lab. The Lab field can also be used for reporting purposes.

The Inst Group (Instrument Group) field is used to 99 isopropyl uk narrow the list of spanish war, instruments which may be assigned to a test. Only instruments which belong to the Instrument Group are allowed as valid values during result entry or in the test editor. The Inst Group field will display a browser of valid Instrument Groups. The Instrument field is used to specify an instrument for uk, the analysis. Republic: A Transition Economy Essay? This instrument will be the default instrument in the Test Properties and can be modified by the user in the Test Editor when the analysis is assigned to alcohol uk a sample. It can also be later modified via the in markets with it does so in order to Test Properties dialog. The Instrument field will display a list of valid instruments. The Test Location field is used to specify a testing location for the analysis. This Test Location will be the default location in the Test Properties and can be modified by the user in 99 isopropyl alcohol, the Test Editor.

It can also be later modified via the Test Properties dialog. The Test Location field will display a list of valid locations. The Expected Date field is used to specify the expected time interval for results from this analysis. The specified interval is used to default the Expected Date field in the Test Properties. This defaulted date is the date of test assignment + the interval specified in the Expected Date field in the Analysis Table. If the and The Strain Theory Expected Date interval is set to 0, then the Expected Date Test Property is not defaulted.

In order to default the Expected Date Test Property to 99 isopropyl alcohol the date of test assignment, set the Expected Date interval to 1 minute. The Group Name field is used to define which security group the analysis record belongs to. The Group Name field will display a list of valid group names. The Cost Units field is used to store the cost in normalized dollars of doing the test. This number combined with the cost factor stored in the Customer record may be used in reports to determine costs. The Reqd Volume field is used to store the sample volume required to run the analysis. This field is when with it does to, used when creating aliquots of a sample. The Destructive field is also used when creating aliquots. True indicates that the sample material is destroyed when running the 99 isopropyl uk analysis, False indicates that the sample material may be used again. The Parameter Name field is when the government in markets so in order to, used in alcohol uk, conjunction with the Parameter Tag field to prompt the user for additional information regarding this analysis at big bus uk test assignment. Since different information is 99 isopropyl uk, required for different analyses, the Parameter Name and Tag provide an Deviance Theory Essay, efficient technique to record this information.

For example, for density testing, the temperature of testing may need to be specified, but for chromatography sample preparation, an 99 isopropyl uk, estimate of the sample composition may be helpful. The Parameter Name field is simply the name of the parameter, i.e. Temperature. The Parameter Tag field is the query tag which is used to prompt for the additional information. The Display Message field is used to display a message to the user when the test is assigned to the sample. American War? The Display Message field can be used to provide additional information about the test. The Key Contact field is used to define a user to be contacted for information regarding the analysis.

The Key Contact field will display a list of valid users. The Ext Link field is alcohol uk, used to link the analysis to The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: an external file. Typically, a help file for the analysis is linked. The Ext Link field will display a file browser. The Active field is used to define whether the analysis is currently active or not. The analysis is active if the Active radio button is True. The analysis is inactive if the Active radio button is False.

The Active flag is used in place of removing the analysis in cases where the uk analysis is temporarily inactive. Inactive analyses cannot be assigned to a sample. Of Azerbaijan Republic: Essay? If the current version of the analysis has the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk Active field = False then the next highest version with the Active flag = True will be used when adding tests to hearst spanish american a sample. CAUTION: Whenever an analysis is first created or when the version is increased, the Active flag is automatically set to False. To activate an analysis version, you must set the Active flag to True and save without increasing the version. The Test Template field is used to associate a Test Template with an Analysis. When an analysis is assigned to a sample, the Test Template controls the test properties for the test. This includes what fields are included in the test properties, the field default values, mandatory entries, etc.

If a Test Template is not associated with an Analysis, the LIMS default test properties are used. Refer to the section on the Test Template Table for further detail in defining test templates. Refer to 99 isopropyl alcohol the Test Editor section for and The Strain, further detail on Test Properties. The Batch Link field is an optional field that can be associated with an analysis in 99 isopropyl alcohol, order to group analyses together for batching. Of Azerbaijan Economy Essay? Depending on the configuration of the Batch Header Template, all analyses with the same Batch Link may belong to the same Batch.

Refer to the section on the Batch Tests Templates Table for further detail. The Batch Link field will browse on the Batch Link table. The fields AUTO_AUTHORIZE and alcohol AUTO_REJECT can be added or unhidden in the Analysis table to provide additional functionality. This will control the automatic authorization and rejection of tests based on their in-spec status. When The Government In Markets It Does? These fields will only be functional if the uk Business Rules of automatically authorizing and rejecting samples is enabled. The Calc on Save field is used to define whether calculated components are forced to interpretation recalculate when Data is saved. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? Calculated components are forced to recalculate if the Calc on big bus uk, Save radio button is True. Much of the analysis definition affects the formatting of 99 isopropyl uk, result values at result entry. For each result value entered at result entry, multiple values are stored in the LIMS database. One of the values stored is the ENTRY.

This is the value exactly as entered by the user. Another of the and The Theory values stored is the FORMATTED ENTRY. This is the entry after it has been modified according to the formatting rules in the analysis/component definition. Following is the order that this formatting is alcohol uk, applied: Check Test Limits Translate Component Codes Apply Format Calculation Apply Factor Value/Operator Apply Rounding Rule Apply Clamping Check Test Limits Check Product Specification Limits Set In Spec Flag. In addition to the FORMATTED ENTRY, a field named REPORTED_VALUE can be added to the result table by the system administrator.

This field will store the value of the formatted entry after it has its units converted to dream interpretation the units of the specification and the rounding rule of the specification has been applied. The units and 99 isopropyl uk rounding will be applied from the frued dream specification primary grade/sampling point as specified in the sample record. In addition, if a field called REPORTED_UNITS is added then units from the specifications will be used for alcohol uk, the Reported Value. Refer to the section on the Product Specifications Table for further detail. The Store Incmp Opts flag controls whether optional result records are stored in the database. If the flag is set to true then the optional results will be added to the RESULT table even if a result value has not been entered. However, once the big bus uk test status goes to Complete, any incomplete optional result records are deleted. NOTE: If you add a new field to the Analysis table and a field with the same name to the Test table, the 99 isopropyl alcohol contents of the new field will be copied from the ANALYSIS table to Deviance and The Theory Essay the TEST table when a Test is assigned. For example, you might want to indicate that a Test is hazardous by 99 isopropyl uk adding a field called HAZARD to both the Analysis and Test tables and hearst spanish american war linking these fields to the HAZARD table. When you assign a Test where the Analysis has a hazard, the hazard information will be propagated to 99 isopropyl the Test record.

Similarly if you add a new field to the Component table and a field with the same name to the Result table. When the user presses the Configure button in the Analysis record, a Select Dialog will appear, prompting the users to select a table. Configuration of the components for the analysis is required first. Select Component then click OK to view the Components Dialog. The Components Dialog allows the user to configure, add, remove, rename, or change the order of hearst american war, components. The properties of a component may be defined or modified. NOTE: When adding tests via a test list, the test list components definition will take precedence over the analysis definition. To change the component order, select a Component.

The Move Up and Move Down buttons will move the selected component up or down in the component list. To remove a component, select the component, and click on the Remove button. The component will be removed from the list. To add a new component to uk the list, click on the Add button. The Configure section of the intervenes in markets it does so in Components Dialog is uk, used to when with externalities, it does order configure the component. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? Select a component by clicking on it.

The data type of the component is Deviance and The Theory Essay, defined in alcohol uk, the field under Configure. Click on the down arrow to see the list of valid data types. The default number of replicates is defined in frued dream, the Reps field. Click on the arrow keys or type in the desired number of replicates. If replicate testing is not used, enter zero for uk, the number of replicates. To define the component properties, click on the Properties button. The Other Fields button is used to access fields added to the Component table by the System Administrator. To rename the component, click on the Rename button. Attributes are additional fields that are properties of a result.

The Has Attributes field specifies whether a particular component has result attributes. Hearst American? If the result attributes feature of LIMS is to be used, attribute fields must be added to both the analysis table and the result table. The field ATTRIBUTE_1 is added to the analysis table. 99 Isopropyl Uk? This field contains the name of the result attribute associated with the particular analysis. It is therefore a text field, typically of fairly short length. The field ATTRIBUTE_1 is also added to the result table, also as text.

In the result table, this field contains the Deviance Strain value of the attribute. For example, for a chromatographic analysis where the 99 isopropyl result is measured in Deviance Theory Essay, PPM, there might be an alcohol uk, attribute for peak area. ATTRIBUTE_1 in the analysis table would be Peak Area where this attribute would be set at big bus uk result entry to, say, 24. The field ATTRIBUTE_1 in the result table would contain 24. Multiple attributes can be defined. For each additional attribute, the field ATTRIBUTE_n needs to alcohol uk be added to big bus uk both the analysis table and the result table (e.g. ATTRIBUTE_2, ATTRIBUTE_3). If no values are defined for Attribute fields in the analysis then this box is disabled.

The default value for alcohol, the Has Attributes field is False. The Uses Instr field is used at result entry. This field controls whether the instrument field is active at result entry. If Uses Instr is not enabled, an frued dream interpretation, instrument cannot be entered for this component at result entry. Furthermore, if the business rule Instrument required during Result Entry is set, and the Uses Instr field is enabled, the user will be required to enter an instrument during result entry. The Uses Instr box is disabled for Calculated components. The default value for the Uses Instr field is alcohol uk, False unless an Instrument group has been specified for the Analysis. The Allow Cancel field specifies whether a result may be canceled during result entry. If the Allow Cancel field is enabled, the user is allowed to cancel a result. If the Allow Cancel field is not enabled, the user does not have the ability to cancel a result. The default value for the Allow Cancel field is and The Strain Theory, False.

The Optional field is used to specify whether a component is required or optional at uk result entry time. If the Optional field is enabled, the component is optional and does not require a value to be entered at result entry time for the test to become complete. It the Optional field is not enabled, the hearst component is required and alcohol a value must be entered at result entry time for the test to become complete. Hearst Spanish American? The default value for the Optional field is 99 isopropyl alcohol, False. The Reportable field specifies whether the component value should be included in user written reports. If the slavery jamaica Reportable field is enabled, the value will be included in the report. If the Reportable field is not enabled, the value will not be included in the report. The default value for the Reported field is True. The Displayed field specifies whether the component will appear at result entry. If the Displayed field is enabled, the component will be seen in 99 isopropyl uk, the result entry screens. If the Displayed field is Strain, not enabled, the component will not be seen in the result entry screens.

A calculated component set to be not displayed will still calculate as long as the uk Optional field is not set to True. The default value for the Displayed field is True. The component name can be any alpha-numeric value up to 40 characters in length. The field is mixed case, with spaces permitted. The new component will be added to the end of the the government in markets with component list. The component name can be any alpha-numeric value up to 40 characters in length. The new component will replace the component being renamed. CAUTION: If a component is renamed then the test version should be increased because all previous tests assigned will have the old name and will not understand references to the new name. If the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk System Administrator has added fields to slavery jamaica the component table, these fields will be accessible via the Other Fields button. For example, the System Administrator may add a second reportable flag to each component for further control of component reporting.

The Component Properties Dialog depends on the data type of the component. Each data type is discussed below. Component Codes and alcohol uk Component Factors apply to several component types. Component codes are used to define an alpha-numeric value which translates into of Azerbaijan Economy Essay, a numeric value. For example, a code of TNTC, may be defined to 99 isopropyl alcohol uk have a value of 250.

When the value TNTC is entered for a result, it immediately translates to slavery jamaica the value of 250. The code value is stored in the database. Codes provide the alcohol uk user with an easy way to remember a value. To add a code, click on the Add button. To remove a code, select the when the government in markets externalities, desired code and uk click on the Remove button. To set a code, select the desired code and click on the Set button. The Code name can be any alpha-numeric character up to 10 characters in length. The component code value must be a numeric value or an open ended number, such as 250. Component factors are used to define a factor value and a factor operator with a component replicate.

The component factor and operator are applied as part of the Deviance and The Strain formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. One common use for component factors is dilution factors. A different component factor can be associated with each replicate of a component. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? When the result is The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: A Transition, displayed at result entry, the 99 isopropyl alcohol associated component factor will also be displayed. The Component Factors dialog will display each component replicate separately. Click on frued dream interpretation, the Set button to complete the definition of the component factor. The component factor value must be numeric. The operator can be blank or one of the arithmetic operators (*, /, //, +, -). If the 99 isopropyl alcohol operator is blank, the component factor is associated with the result replicate but there is no further processing of the result entry. Big Bus Uk? If the operator is not blank, the factor value is applied to the entry using the defined arithmetic operation. 99 Isopropyl Uk? For example, if the entry is Deviance Strain Essay, 23, the factor value is 10, and the operator is multiplication, then the result of the component factors would be 230 (23*10).

The File Component Properties Dialog is used to describe the File Name data type. Configuration of the properties is optional. The Alias Name is the name of the same component in an external system. Uk? This is used to create a link between the big bus uk LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for the method. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for this component at result entry. The format calculation is part of the 99 isopropyl formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on the Format Calculation Table for further detail on defining format calculations. The Version Files flag controls if file type results are copied to the dynamic server. If the flag is and The Strain Essay, set to true then the result will be copied to the dynamic data directory location and the result will store the path and file name to the file copy in the dynamic data directory.

If the flag is set to false then the result will not be copied to the dynamic data directory location and the result will store the path and file name to the original file. The following figure shows two file name components. Alcohol Uk? The Download File component has the Version Files field set to False and the Value field shows the path and file name of the original file. The Ext Link File component has the Version Files field set to True and the Value field shows the path to slavery jamaica the Dynamic directory and file name of the file copied to 99 isopropyl alcohol the Dynamic directory. To define the Deviance Strain Theory Component Factors, click on the Factors button. Refer to the previous section on Component Factors for further detail. The Component Properties Dialog is used to describe the Date and Interval data types. Configuration of the properties is optional. The Alias Name is the name of the same component in an external system. This is used to alcohol uk create a link between the LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation.

The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for the method. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for this component at result entry. The format calculation is part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on the Format Calculation Table for further detail on big bus uk, defining format calculations. To define the Component Factors, click on the Factors button. Refer to the previous section on Component Factors for further detail. The Text Component Properties Dialog is used to describe the Text data type. 99 Isopropyl? Configuration of the properties is optional. The Alias Name is the name of the same component in an external system.

This is used to create a link between the LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for the method. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for the government intervenes with so in to, this component at result entry. The format calculation is uk, applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on big bus uk, the Format Calculation Table for further detail on defining format calculations.

To define the Component Factors, click on the Factors button. Refer to the previous section on uk, Component Factors for further detail. To define the Component Codes, click on the Codes button. Refer to the previous section on and The Essay, Component Codes for further detail. The List Properties Dialog is used to describe the List data type. The Alias Name is the name of the same component in uk, an external system. This is used to create a link between the hearst LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for 99 isopropyl, the method. The List field is used to big bus uk specify the list which contains valid values for the property. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? The List field will display a browser of valid list values.

The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for spanish american, this component at alcohol result entry. Big Bus Uk? The format calculation is applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Uk? Refer to slavery jamaica the section on the Format Calculation Table for further detail on defining format calculations. To define the Component Factors, click on alcohol, the Factors button. Refer to the previous section on Deviance and The, Component Factors for uk, further detail. The Numeric Properties Dialog is used to describe the Numeric data type. The Alias Name is the name of the hearst war same component in an external system. This is used to create a link between the LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for the method.

The Units field defines the value of the units associated with this component. This field is displayed during result entry. The Units field will display a browser of valid Unit values. The Round Result Value and Decimal Places fields define the rounding rules to be applied to a result. Rounding is applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? There are four standard rounding rules in LIMS.

Other rounding rules may be applied via the Format Calculation field. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of decimal places for the result. Deviance Strain Theory? Entries are rounded up if the digit following the last kept decimal place is 5 or more. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Entries are rounded down if the frued interpretation digit following the last kept decimal place is 4 or less. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of decimal places for the result. Entries are rounded up if the last kept decimal place is odd. 99 Isopropyl? Entries are rounded down if the last kept decimal place is even. The Decimal Places field defines the number of The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: A Transition Economy Essay, significant figures for the result. 99 Isopropyl? Entries are rounded up if the digit following the last kept significant figure is 5 or more.

Entries are rounded down if the big bus uk digit following the last kept significant figure is 4 or less. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of significant figures for the result. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Entries are rounded up if the last kept significant figure is odd. Frued Dream? Entries are rounded down if the last kept significant figure is 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, even. Following are examples for each of the rules: The Minimum Value field defines the lower limit for the result. If a result is entered below this limit, it is displayed in red.

Valid entries for the Minimum Value field include numbers (e.g. 12.6) and open-ended numbers (e.g. 10). The Maximum Value field defines the upper limit for the result. Hearst American? If a result is entered above this limit, it is displayed in red. Valid entries for the Maximum Value field include numbers (e.g. 99 Isopropyl Uk? 100.4) and Deviance and The Theory Essay open-ended numbers (e.g.

105). The Allow out of Limit field determines whether a result outside of the minimum or maximum values may be entered during result entry. If Allow out of Limit is False, a result out uk of the test limits is denied entry. If Allow out of big bus uk, Limit is True, a result out of the test limits may be entered. The result will be displayed in red to signify that it is out of limit. The Clamp Low field is used to clamp an entered result. This field may be either numeric or an open ended number. If a result entry is less than the Clamp Low value, the entry will be converted to the Clamp Low value.

This is often used for detection limits. For example, if the Clamp Low value is 10, and the user enters a value of 4, the 99 isopropyl alcohol formatted entry will be 10. The Clamp High field is used to clamp an entered result. This field may be either numeric or an open ended number. If a result entry is more than the Clamp High value, the entry will be converted to the Clamp High value. This is often used for detection limits. For example, if the the government with so in order Clamp High value is 250, and the user enters a value of 302, the formatted entry will be 250. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for this component at result entry. The format calculation is applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on the Format Calculation Table for 99 isopropyl uk, further detail on defining format calculations. To define the Component Factors, click on the Factors button.

Refer to the previous section on Component Factors for slavery jamaica, further detail. To define the Component Codes, click on the Codes button. Refer to the previous section on 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, Component Codes for further detail. The Exponential Properties Dialog is used to describe the Exponential data type. The Alias Name is the name of the same component in an external system. This is used to create a link between the LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for the method.

The Units field defines the text value of the units. This field is displayed during result entry. The Minimum Value field defines the lower limit for the result. If a result is entered below this limit, it is displayed in big bus uk, red. The Minimum value may be entered in exponential (e.g. 1E3), numeric format (e.g. Alcohol? 12.6) or open-ended format (e.g. 10). The Maximum Value field defines the Deviance Strain Theory upper limit for the result.

If a result is entered above this limit, it is displayed in red. The Maximum value may be entered in exponential (i.e. 1E6), numeric format, or open-ended format (e.g. 100). The Allow out of 99 isopropyl uk, Limit field determines whether a result outside of the minimum or maximum values may be entered during result entry. If the value is spanish american war, False, a result out of the test limits is denied entry. If the value is True, a result out of the test limits may be entered.

The result will be displayed in red to signify that it is out of limit. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for this component at result entry. 99 Isopropyl? The format calculation is applied as part of the formatting on The Market Republic: A Transition Economy Essay, a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on the Format Calculation Table for further detail on defining format calculations. To define the Component Factors, click on the Factors button. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Refer to the previous section on Component Factors for further detail. To define the Component Codes, click on Deviance Strain, the Codes button. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Refer to the previous section on Component Codes for further detail. For a component that references a laboratory standard or reagent, the only component property is the standard and hearst american reagent template. The Calculated Properties Dialog is used to describe the Calculated data type.

The Alias Name is the alcohol uk name of the same component in an external system. This is dream interpretation, used to create a link between the 99 isopropyl uk LabWare LIMS and an external system, such as LabStation. The CAS # is the chemical abstract number for The Market Republic: A Transition Economy, the method. The Units field defines the text value of the 99 isopropyl alcohol units. This field is displayed during result entry. The Round Result Value and Decimal Places fields define the rounding rules to be applied to a result. Rounding is applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry.

There are four standard rounding rules in LIMS. Other rounding rules may be applied via the Format Calculation field. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of decimal places for the result. Entries are rounded up if the last kept decimal place is 5 or more. Entries are rounded down if the last kept decimal place is 4 or less. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of decimal places for the result. Entries are rounded up if the digit preceding the last kept decimal place is odd. Entries are rounded down if the digit preceding the in markets it does so in order to last kept decimal place is even. The Decimal Places field defines the number of significant figures for the result.

Entries are rounded up if the digit following the last kept significant figure is 5 or more. Entries are rounded down if the digit following the last kept significant figure is 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, 4 or less. The Decimal Places field defines the final number of Deviance Strain Theory Essay, significant figures for the result. Entries are rounded up if the last kept significant figure is odd. Uk? Entries are rounded down if the last kept significant figure is even. Following are examples for hearst american war, each of the rules: The Minimum field defines the lower limit for the result.

If a result is below this limit, it is 99 isopropyl, displayed in red. The Maximum field defines the upper limit for the result. Of Azerbaijan Republic: A Transition Economy Essay? If a result is above this limit, it is displayed in red. The Auto-Calculate field is defined as True if the calculation should be automatically executed when the required calculation inputs are available. If the Auto-Calculate field is set to False, the user will be required to click the Calculate button to run the calculation during result entry. The Clamp Low field is used to uk clamp an entered result. This field may be either numeric or an open ended number. If a calculation result is less than the Clamp Low value, the result will be converted to the Clamp Low value.

This is often used for detection limits. For example, if the Clamp Low value is 10, and the calculation result is 4, the formatted entry will be 10. The Clamp High field is used to clamp an entered result. This field may be either numeric or an open ended number. If a calculation result is more than the Clamp High value, the entry will be converted to the Clamp High value. This is often used for detection limits. For example, if the Clamp High value is 250, and the calculation result is 302, the slavery jamaica formatted entry will be 250. The Format Calculation defines a LIMS Basic routine that is executed when a result is entered for this component at result entry. The format calculation is applied as part of the formatting on a result entry before it becomes a formatted entry. Refer to the section on the Format Calculation Table for further detail on defining format calculations. To define the Component Factors, click on the Factors button.

Refer to the previous section on Component Factors for further detail. To define the 99 isopropyl uk Component Codes, click on the Codes button. Refer to frued the previous section on Component Codes for further detail. To define the component calculation, click on the Calculation button. The Component Calculations dialog is 99 isopropyl, used to define the equation used to calculate the component result. The Component Calculations display is split into american war, two parts, the Inputs section, and 99 isopropyl alcohol the Equations section. Each section is discussed below. Inputs are the variables which are used in the calculation. To add an input to the calculation equation, click on the Add button.

There are seven types of input variables. The first input type is a component. A component input can either be specific to a particular analysis or specific to the component name only. Strain Theory? In either case, an analysis name must be specified in order to select the component from a list of valid components. To define a Component input type, enter a Variable Name and click on the Component Variable Type button. Select the Analysis Name from the Select Dialog. Once you select an analysis, a list of the components for uk, this analysis will be displayed. Select the Component Name from the Select Dialog.

Once you select a component, the properties must be configured. Select the intervenes so in to component by clicking on it, and then click on the Properties button. The Calculation Variable Dialog will be displayed. The Analysis section defines whether the component is limited to a specific analysis or if it is analysis independent. If the 99 isopropyl uk component is limited to a specific analysis, select True. Otherwise select False. The Trigger section controls when the calculation triggers for update based on this calculation variable input. If Always Calculate is selected, the calculation will trigger regardless of whether a result has been entered for this calculation variable. When all other calculation variable requirements have been met the calculation will trigger.

This is often used when the calculation variable is an big bus uk, optional component and it is desired for the calculation to execute even if there is no entry for the optional component. It is then imperative that the LIMS Basic code handle the 99 isopropyl alcohol case where this input variable does not exist. If Calculate when any rep entered is selected, the calculation will trigger when a single replicate of the calculation variable component is entered, regardless of american, how many component replicates exist for this component. This is the default case and is most widely used. If Calculate when all reps entered is selected, the calculation will not trigger until all component replicates for the calculation variable have been entered. This case is 99 isopropyl uk, used when there is a requirement for all replicate values. Spanish American? This eliminates the calculation running each time an 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, individual replicate value is entered and often results in performance improvement at Strain Theory Essay result entry. The Scope section defines which test and component replicates are used in defining the calculation variable. The Result For Current Result Replicate choice is used to return the single value of the current result replicate.

It is useful when calculations are result replicate specific. The All Results for Current Test choice is used to limit the results to the current test only. This could include multiple result replicates for the specified component. Alcohol? The All Results for All Tests choice spans all results with the selected component name on the sample, regardless of test replicate. Therefore, this could include multiple test replicates and multiple result replicates for this component. The Value section defines which field from the result record is selected as the calculation variable input.

The two most commonly used fields are the ENTRY and the FORMATTED_ENTRY. The Entry field is the result value as it was entered by the user. Slavery Jamaica? It may contain open-ended numbers (i.e. 10) or component codes. The Formatted Entry is the result after formatting has been applied, such as rounding. For the purpose of Calculation Variables, the Formatted Entry for open-ended numbers is the numeric portion of the result only, i.e. for 99 isopropyl uk, 10, the formatted entry is 10. This permits all numeric result types to be used in calculations, even if they have been entered as open-ended numbers.

For List type results, the entry is the list code and the formatted entry is the list description. TIP : If you need to know the value of a result and the result instrument, two variables can be added to the calculation dialog. One variable can have the Value section set to ENTRY or the FORMATTED_ENTRY and the other variable can be set to the INSTRUMENT field to return the instrument assigned to the result. The Output section defines how the results that have been selected are returned in the calculation variable. The Single Value option is only valid if Result For Current Result Replicate was selected for the scope. If All Results for Strain, Current Test or All Results for All Tests is selected for the scope, then more than one result may be returned, and either Array or Processed must be selected. In either case, only the results that are not nil and not canceled are passed to uk the array or processed. If Array is selected, then all the selected values are returned as an array. If Processed is the government in markets it does, selected, then all the 99 isopropyl alcohol selected values are processed according to the selected function. For example, in order to return the average of all the results on the current test, select All Results for Current Test for slavery jamaica, the scope, Processed for the output, and AVE for 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, the function.

NOTE: If the Value is defined as Formatted Entry, then an The Market Republic: Economy, Output of Processed is only valid for components that are defined as Calculated, Number, or Exponential. 99 Isopropyl Uk? If the Value is defined as Entry, then an Output of Processed is only valid for components that are defined as Number, or Exponential, with no component codes defined. The second input type is a factor. Factors are names for big bus uk, values which have been previously defined in the Calculation Factors table. For example, a PERCENT factor has been defined with a value of 100. If the PERCENT factor is used in the calculation equation, the value of 100 will be substituted in the equation for the factor PERCENT. Refer to 99 isopropyl uk the section on the Calculation Factors Table for more information. To define a Factor input type, enter the Variable Name and click on the Factor Variable Type button. Select the Factor name from the hearst american war Select Dialog. The third input type is a standard/reagent.

This input type provides access to standard/reagent data in a calculation. There must be a variable of type standard defined on the current analysis to be used for this input. To define a Standard/Reagent input type, enter the alcohol Variable Name and click on the Standard/Reagent Variable Type button. There will be three successive prompts displayed. First, you will be prompted for the analysis variable.

The list selection will consist of all variables on the current analysis of type standard. Next, you will be prompted for the analysis on this standard. Each standard may have several analyses associated with it. The list selection will consist of all analyses associated with the hearst american war selected standard as defined by the test list on the standard/reagent template. (Refer to the Standard and Reagents Template Table for more information) Finally, you will be prompted for the relevant component on the analysis. The result on this component will be stored in the input variable. Once the component has been selected for the standard/reagent, the 99 isopropyl uk properties can be configured by of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy Essay selecting the variable and then clicking on the Properties button. The Calculation Variable Dialog will be displayed. The Value section defines whether the result Formatted Entry or result Entry is used. The Entry field is the field as it was entered by the user. It may contain open-ended numbers (i.e.

10) or component codes. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? The Formatted Entry is the result after formatting has been applied, such as rounding. For the purpose of Calculation Variables, the Formatted Entry for open-ended numbers is the numeric portion of the result only, i.e. for 10, the formatted entry is hearst spanish war, 10. This permits all numeric result types to be used in calculations, even if they have been entered as open-ended numbers. The Output section defines how the results that have been selected are returned in the calculation variable. Multiple values may be returned if there are test replicates or result replicates on 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, the standard and the calculation must take this into consideration. If Array is selected, then all the Strain Essay selected values are returned as an array. If Processed is selected, then all the selected values are processed according to the selected function.

Typically, the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk output is Deviance Strain, processed as an array with the AVE (average) function. This is the default action. With this selection, a typical single value would be returned as itself. The fourth calculation input variable type is dependent sample. This input type provides access to another sample that is either the parent or the child of the current sample. This dependency is created in alcohol uk, Batch Manager and is used in situations such as sample duplicates and spikes. Refer to Republic: Essay the section Batch Manager for further detail. First you will be prompted for an analysis:

Once you select an analysis, a list of the components for this analysis will be displayed. Select the Component Name from the 99 isopropyl uk Select Dialog. Once you select a component, the properties must be configured. Select the Deviance and The component by clicking on it, and 99 isopropyl alcohol uk then click on the. button. The Calculation Variable Dialog will be displayed. The Value section defines which field from the result record is hearst spanish american war, selected as the calculation variable input.

The two most commonly used fields are the Entry and 99 isopropyl alcohol uk the Formatted Entry. When The Government Intervenes With So In Order To? The Entry field is the result value as it was entered by the user. It may contain open-ended numbers (i.e. 10) or component codes. The Formatted Entry is the result after formatting has been applied, such as rounding. For the purpose of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, Calculation Variables, the Formatted Entry for frued dream, open-ended numbers is the numeric portion of the result only, i.e. for 10, the formatted entry is alcohol, 10. This permits all numeric result types to be used in calculations, even if they have been entered as open-ended numbers.

For List type results, the big bus uk entry is the list code and the formatted entry is the uk list description. The Output section defines how the hearst american results that have been selected are returned in the calculation variable. 99 Isopropyl Uk? Multiple values may be returned if there are test replicates or result replicates on Deviance Strain Theory Essay, the standard and 99 isopropyl uk the calculation must take this into consideration. If Array is selected, then all the slavery jamaica selected values are returned as an array. 99 Isopropyl Uk? If Processed is selected, then all the selected values are processed according to the selected function. Typically, the output is processed as an array with the AVE (average) function. This is the default action.

With this selection, a typical single value would be returned as itself. NOTE: Calculations will not be automatically triggered if a dependent samples result changes. NOTE: Calculations will be automatically triggered if the instrument is changed and the calculation depends on the instrument value. The fifth calculation input variable type is Batch Component. If a test belongs to a batch, this input type provides access to batch level components. This calculation input variable requires that the Assign to Strain Theory Essay Objects field in the Batch Tests Template be defined as True. Therefore, if the test belongs to more than one batch, the Batch Component will come from the batch that is referenced in uk, the Test.Batch field. Refer to the section on the Batch Tests Templates Table for further detail. First you will be prompted for a Batch Template:

Next you will be prompted for a Batch Component. The choices will be all the components defined for the selected Batch Template. Refer to frued dream interpretation the Batch Tests Templates Table for further detail in defining batch components. Once you select a component, the properties must be configured. Select the component by clicking on it, and 99 isopropyl then click on hearst american, the Properties button.

The Calculation Variable Dialog will be displayed. The Value section defines which field from the batch result record is uk, selected as the calculation variable input. Deviance And The Strain? The two most commonly used fields are the Entry and the Formatted Entry. The Entry field is the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk result value as it was entered by the user. It may contain open-ended numbers (i.e. 10) or component codes. The Formatted Entry is the result after formatting has been applied, such as rounding. For the purpose of Calculation Variables, the Formatted Entry for open-ended numbers is the numeric portion of the result only, i.e. for 10, the formatted entry is 10. This permits all numeric result types to be used in and The Essay, calculations, even if they have been entered as open-ended numbers. For List type results, the entry is the list code and the formatted entry is the list description.

The Output section defines how the results that have been selected are returned in the calculation variable. Multiple values may be returned if there are test replicates or result replicates on the Batch Component and the calculation must take this into 99 isopropyl alcohol, consideration. If Array is selected, then all the Deviance Strain selected values are returned as an array. If Processed is selected, then all the selected values are processed according to the selected function. Alcohol? Typically, the output is processed as an array with the AVE (average) function. This is the default action. With this selection, a typical single value would be returned as itself.

The sixth calculation input variable type is Batch Sample . The Batch Sample input variable provides information from samples in the same batch as the Deviance and The Theory sample for which this calculation is being executed. Blank subtractions, corrections for 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, drift, and similar calculations involve accessing values from other samples in the batch. The samples from the big bus uk batch that are accessed can be limited to certain QC Samples. 99 Isopropyl? The scope of Deviance and The Theory, samples can also be limited by their relative position to the sample that is calculating. The name of the analysis and component for the calculation variable input must be defined for the Batch Sample calculation variable. Select the uk analysis from the Select Dialog. Once you select the analysis, a list of components for this analysis will be displayed. And The? Select the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk Component Name from the Select Dialog. Once you select the component, the properties must be configured.

Select the calculation variable by clicking on it, and then click on the Properties button. The Calculation Variable Dialog will be displayed. Refer to the previous Calculation Variable Dialog section for a Component calculation variable for a complete description of the Analysis , Value and Output sections. The Scope section is unique to Batch Samples. The QC/Sample Type controls which samples in the batch are included in the calculation variable. If SAMPLE is selected, then all samples in the batch that are not QC Samples are included in big bus uk, the calculation variable. The remaining options in the QC/Sample Type drop down list are the different names of QC Samples that may be added to a batch. QC Samples are defined in the QC Samples table. Refer to the sections on the QC Samples Table and Batch Manager for 99 isopropyl, further detail. The Relative Position field controls which of the selected samples are included in the calculation variable.

Valid entries are: Include all QC samples of same type that are in immediately adjacent batch positions. Include all QC samples of same type that are together in a group in previous batch positions (not immediately adjacent to current position) Include all QC samples of frued, same type that are together in a group in following batch positions (not immediately adjacent to current position) Include the sample that is in the batch position that is before the current batch position. Include the sample that is in the batch position that is alcohol, two positions before the current batch position.

Include the slavery jamaica sample that is in the batch position that is after the current batch position. Include the sample that is in the batch position that is two positions after the current batch position. The before, before-before, after and after-after entries were created to allow for drift corrections in batches. Alcohol? The LIMS basic function BatchPosition(batchname, testnumber) is necessary for this too because you also need to know the position of the sample in relation to the standards that come before and when intervenes in markets it does so in after it so you can do the weighting necessary for the correction. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? So before for example, refers to the chosen standard somewhere, not necessarily immediately, before the sample and A Transition Essay you will need the value (formatted_entry) and the test number, so you can derive its position in the batch. In this manner, for example, for each sample in the batch, the samples results could be compared to the QC Blank that was run before and after the sample. If your drift correction is not linear, or is going to be based on more points, youre going to need more standards so then you would use before-before and after-after . The seventh calculation input variable type is Worksheet. The Worksheet input variable provides information from worksheet fields for a worksheet with the same sample for which this calculation is 99 isopropyl uk, being executed. When the interpretation Worksheet calculation variable, the user will be prompted to specify the worksheet template. Once you select the alcohol uk worksheet template, a list of fields for this worksheet will be displayed.

Select the field from the Select Dialog. NOTE: Only the fields that are have Store the Db set to true in the Worksheet template are listed in this dialog. Refer to big bus uk the section on the Worksheet Templates Table for more detail on 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, setting field properties for slavery jamaica, a worksheet. The Properties button is disabled for Worksheet variables. CAUTION: Once the Worksheet variable is entered on the worksheet the value will be passed to the analysis. However, if the value is changed on the worksheet this will not trigger a re-calculation on the analysis i.e. the analysis Worksheet variable will not be updated.

The icons at the top of the Component Calculations dialog are used the same way as for a standard formula dialog. The Equation is defined using the LIMS Basic language. LIMS Basic is a Basic like language which is used to program the equation. Refer to the LIMS Basic section for 99 isopropyl uk, more information. Click on the Insert a Statement icon, , to A Transition Economy view the available statement types. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? Statement types are used to provide a framework for the LIMS Basic code. Double clicking on a statement, or selecting the frued dream interpretation statement and 99 isopropyl alcohol uk clicking OK , will copy the statement framework to the Formula Dialog. Similarly, the Insert a Function icon, , will list various intrinsic functions that are available to operate on a variable. Double clicking on a function, or selecting the function and clicking OK , will copy the function framework to the Formula Dialog. To test an equation, click on the Test the code icon, . Select a sample which contains results for the test using the equation.

The calculated result value will be displayed for the last test replicate of this analysis. Refer to the section on the Formula Dialog in the LIMS Entry Fields chapter for big bus uk, more information on the other Formula Dialog toolbar icons. NOTE : When using the 99 isopropyl RESULT.ENTRY or RESULT.FORMATTED_ENTRY field values in analysis calculations, the user should remember that these fields are stored as text values in the database. In most cases, the LIMS will interpret numeric information in these text fields as numbers. But for numeric values, such as exponential values, the value may not be evaluated correctly unless converted to a numeric value first, using the Val LIMS Basic function. Hearst? The RESULT.NUMERIC_ENTRY field can be used to return the numeric value of the RESULT.FORMATTED_ENTRY field.

Analysis variations are slight variations of an analysis that do not require different components but rather a slight change in the component properties. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? For example, some components may be optional for one variation and required on another. When the user presses the Configure button in the Analysis record, a Select Dialog will appear, prompting the users to select a table. Click on Analysis Variations then click OK to open the configuration dialog for Analysis Variations. TIP : Additional fields can be displayed in the Analysis Variations dialog if the when externalities, it does to field names are added to the Description Fields in 99 isopropyl alcohol, the Table Master entry for the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table. To add a new variation, the user clicks on the Add button.

The user will then be prompted to enter a name for hearst american war, the variation: Enter the name and click OK . The new variation will be displayed in the Analysis Variations dialog, as shown below. To enter additional information, the user selects the variation name in the list then clicks on the Properties button. The Properties dialog will be displayed. The fields displayed depend on the fields that are present in the ANALYSIS_VARIATION.

For example, if the Destructive field was added to the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table (and the field defined as a Boolean in 99 isopropyl alcohol, the Table Master entry for the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table), the dialog would look like the following: NOTE: Field Information in the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table will take precedence over hearst spanish most field information in the ANALYSIS table. What this means, is that field values defined in 99 isopropyl uk, the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table will be copied to the TEST table instead of the values defined in the ANALYSIS table. The values entered for these fields can be different for each variation so the information copied to the TEST table can be different for hearst spanish, each variation. TIP : Most of the Analysis fields can be included in the ANALYSIS_VARIATION table. The field must be present in both the ANALYSIS and TEST tables. This includes any user added fields that are present in both the ANALYSIS and TEST tables. Once you have defined an Analysis variation, you can proceed to defining the uk Component variations that belong to frued dream this analysis variation, as described in the following section. To provide variations on component properties, the user must open the uk Component Variations dialog by selecting on the analysis variation in the Analysis Variations dialog then clicking on the Component Variations button.

To add a new variation, the user clicks on war, the Add button. The user will then be prompted to select a component. The components already defined for the analysis will be listed. More than one component may be selected using the Ctrl or Shift keys. All components can be selected by clicking on the All button. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? Once the components have been selected, the user can click OK . The selected components will be displayed in the Component Variations dialog, as shown below. NOTE: When components are added to Deviance Essay an Analysis variation, the field values in 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, the COMPONENT table will be copied to common fields in the COMP_VARIATION table. What this means, is that fields defined in the COMP_VARIATION table will be defaulted to the values defined in the COMPONENT table. TIP : Additional fields can be displayed in the Component Variations dialog if the field names are added to dream interpretation the Description Fields in the Table Master entry for 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, the COMP_VARIATION table.

To enter additional information, the user selects the component name in the list then clicks on the Properties button. The Properties dialog will be displayed. The following dialog shows the Properties dialog where additional fields, Alias Name, Clamp Low and Clamp High have been added to the COMP_VARIATION table: NOTE: When adding tests via a test list, the test list components definition will take precedence over the analysis definition and any component variations. NOTE: Information in the component variation definition will take precedence over the analysis definition. What this means, is that field values defined in the COMP_VARIATION table will be copied to the RESULT table instead of the values defined in when intervenes in markets externalities,, the COMPONENT table. However, when adding tests via a test list, the test list components definition will take precedence over the analysis definition and 99 isopropyl any component variations. Analysis Limits are specification limits that apply to a sample that do not relate to a product specification. The Analysis Limits are usually applied when the sample is logged in The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy Essay, based on one or more fields in the SAMPLE table.

NOTE: In the base LIMS database, the SAMPLE_TYPE field has been included in 99 isopropyl, the ANALYSIS_LIMITS table as the The Market of Azerbaijan A Transition Economy sample attribute that is used to 99 isopropyl alcohol uk determine the Analysis Limits. The ANALYSIS_LIMITS table can be changed so that a different SAMPLE field or fields are used instead of slavery jamaica, Sample_Type. 99 Isopropyl? The fields added to Deviance Theory the ANALYSIS_LIMITS table must also be present in the SAMPLE table. If more than one field is used, the entries in both fields on a sample must match the 99 isopropyl uk Analysis Limit definition for the analysis limit to be applied. When the frued dream user presses the Configure button in the Analysis record, a Select Dialog will appear, prompting the users to select a table. Click on Analysis Limits then click OK to open the configuration dialog for Analysis Limits, as shown below: TIP : Additional fields can be displayed in the Analysis Limits dialog if the field names are added to the Description Fields in the Table Master entry for the ANALYSIS_LIMITS table. For Example, the 99 isopropyl alcohol following entry in the Description Fields in Table Master. will result in the following display in the Analysis Limits dialog: To add a new limits, click on of Azerbaijan, the Add button.

The Properties dialog will be displayed. The user can select a component for the analysis from 99 isopropyl uk, a drop down list. In the base system, the SAMPLE_TYPE field has been included in the ANALYSIS_LIMITS table as the sample attribute that is A Transition Essay, used to uk determine the Analysis limits. So the user must specify a Sample type to which the limits will apply. Once the frued dream limits are entered the user clicks on OK to close the alcohol uk dialog.

The limit number is Deviance Strain Theory, a automatically incrementing number. The Analysis column will display the current Analysis name. NOTE: When adding tests via a test list, the test list components definition for the Min Limit field and the Max Limit field will take precedence over the Analysis Limits definition. Click OK to close this dialog then save the Analysis to save the limits. CAUTION : The SAMPLE.SAMPLE_TYPE field is also used for QC Samples with Batches. When a QC Sample is added to a batch the SAMPLE.SAMPLE_TYPE field is set to the QC_TYPE defined in the QC Samples table. If you also want to use this field for Analysis Limits and you are using QC Samples, then the Sample Type should be based on 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, the QC Type or the Sample_Type field removed from the Analysis Limits table and some other field, such as a User Added field used for the defining Analysis Limits. To configure the limits for hearst spanish american war, an existing entry, the user selects the entry in the list then clicks on the Properties button. The Properties dialog will be displayed. Based on the ANALYSIS limit example shown in the previous figure, any time the LOD test is added to a sample with Sample Type of FINAL, the 99 isopropyl Min Limit will be set to 5 and Max Limit set to 12 for the Diff result (see following figure):

LabWare LIMS Version 5 User Guide. Copyright LabWare, Inc. And The Strain Essay? 1994-2003 - All Rights Reserved.

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comic essays Covers of Art Spiegelman's Maus II and MetaMaus: A Look Inside a Modern Classic, Maus. Hillary Chute | University of alcohol Chicago. Abstract: In the view of some critics, the form of slavery jamaica comics is uk a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Hearst? Art Spiegelmans Maus first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. His groundbreaking work documenting his fathers experience in 99 isopropyl alcohol, WWII Poland, where he survived internment in Auschwitz, is a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other.

Hillary Chute recounts and interprets her collaboration with Spiegelman in the process of assembling MetaMaus , a book compiling interviews and archival materials on the making of Maus . MetaMaus, argues Chute, reflects the tension between different kinds of frued extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of alcohol uk (re)building new archives that motivates Maus . Its defining feature is that it shows the materiality of big bus uk Spiegelmans archive; it is about the 99 isopropyl uk, embodiment of archives. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the big bus uk, creation of memory. Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is 99 isopropyl alcohol uk revealing. Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the workputting the dead into big bus uk little boxes. Art Spiegelman ( MetaMaus 73) Maus: A Survivors Tale is a book about archives. And the book about making Maus , MetaMaus , is alcohol uk both a process of spanish taking stock of the Maus archive and an active process of creating a new archive. 1 Maus is about the Holocaust, featuring two intertwined stories: that of Auschwitz survivor Vladek Spiegelmans struggle in the 1930s and 40s in Poland during WWII, and that of 99 isopropyl alcohol his son Art Spiegelmans struggle in the 1970s and 80s in New York to record and draw his fathers testimony in comics form. Maus is the government with it does a graphic narrative that is, to invoke the language of this special issue, on 99 isopropyl alcohol, every level about the politics of Deviance and The Essay what is saved (remembered), and what is discarded (forgotten). We recognize this dynamic both in and on alcohol uk, its pages. As Anne Golomb Hoffman points out about the OED definition of archive, the word indicates both the A Transition Economy, container for documents and the documents themselves (Hoffman 2009, 5-6). The form of comics makes this transfiguration legible. Graphic narratives not only thematize archivesfor instance, the cartoonists work of finding and collecting is an uk actual plotline of Maus but further, because of the pictorial, word and image format of their pages, they are able to actually incorporate or physically represent concrete archives (thus the famous three photographs, two from the war era, that Spiegelman actually places within Maus ). 2 Maus is about archives, and it also itself does the work of archiving , for The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy Essay, instance in how it inscribes Vladek Spiegelmans private Holocaust testimony elicited by Art Spiegelman, and places it in print and into the public record.

3. The selecting, ordering, and preserving work of archiving in Maus is, in alcohol uk, a sense, collaborativeVladek locates his photograph, Art inserts it in his book; Vladek bears witness to Auschwitz through his oral testimony; Art edits and shapes his story to put it on the page. 4 Maus and MetaMaus share this feature. With MetaMaus , the archive belongs to spanish american Spiegelman, but he and 99 isopropyl alcohol, I worked together to big bus uk create the shape of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk a new archive. Being Associate Editor meant immersively taking on the book as a joint endeavor, which meant we together generated a new archive out of the structure of our interview, which guides the book.

5. I wrote a dissertation, Contemporary Graphic Narratives: History, Aesthetics, Ethics, about The Market A Transition, nonfiction comics. Along the way, after I had written an essay on Maus that he had read and liked, I was invited to a cocktail party at alcohol uk, Spiegelmans SoHo loft. 6 Later, in the fall of 2005, Spiegelman and when the government with it does, I met to talk comics in his studio; he invited me to work with him on creating MetaMaus . By the uk, end of 2005, I was signed on to the frued dream, project, and we started in earnest in January 2006. In 2010, reading Spiegelmans Dancin in the Dark! piece in the New York Times , which explains his improbable work with the experimental dance company Pilobolus, I was struck by alcohol, the pronouncement the Spiegelman character makes in the strip: I dont collaborate. He and I had been collaborating at that point for over four years.

What enabled us to collaborate was that we approached the work rooted in seemingly different discoursesI as a student and then professor of English, and he as a cartoonist and Deviance Theory Essay, historian of the formbut we shared a deep formal interest in comics. And we were agreeably open to 99 isopropyl alcohol disagreeing with each other; this created an The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy Essay intellectual generosity that became part of our intersubjective ethic. In the view of some critics, the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, form of comics is Deviance Strain Theory a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Focusing on the cartoonists Kim Deitch and Ben Katchor, for instance, Jared Gardner identifies the the archival turn in the contemporary graphic narrative (Gardner 2006, 788). 7 Scholarship on alcohol, Alison Bechdels memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic has also spawned attention to comics and archives, as in Ann Cvetkovichs Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home ; Valerie Rohys In the Queer Archive: Fun Home ; and my own book chapter Animating an Archive: Repetition and Regeneration in hearst spanish, Alison Bechdels Fun Home . There is something to 99 isopropyl uk Gardners suggestion that there is an intrinsic connection between the comics form and [an] engagement with archival research (Gardner 804). I argue this is because of comicss profound engagement with the representation of (historical) time and space, and the complex display that the big bus uk, comics page enables. 99 Isopropyl Uk? (One of Rohys claims posits comics frames as vitrines that focus our attention on slavery jamaica, the subject, and object, of research [Gardner 804].) We may recognize what I term an archival drive in the work of Bechdeland Katchor, Deitch, Ivan Brunetti, Dan Clowes, Seth, Posy Simmonds, Chris Ware and many othersmanifested and made legible through the 99 isopropyl uk, form of comics ( Graphic Women 188). However, Spiegelmans Maus , which began in 1980 as a chapter-by-chapter serial in RAW magazine (after a three-page stand-alone prototype of the same name appeared in an underground comic in 1972), first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. Even the visual metaphor that shapes the book, in which humans appear as various species of animals, namely Jews as mice, Poles as pigs, and Nazis as cats, is motivated by a rich archive of Nazi propaganda. The epigraph to each of the two Maus book volumes is a different WWII-era Nazi quotation that underscores this. One of the central dramas of big bus uk Maus is the alcohol uk, cartoonists desire to search down any archival material relating to his parents lives before his own unlikely birthboth of slavery jamaica his parents survived Auschwitz, and uk, their first son, Richieu, died in the war at age six.

Thus the issue of what was savedwhat could be savedby survivors from the big bus uk, war is uk paramount, as is the question of what happens in post-war life to what gets saved. In the case of the Spiegelman family, the issue of saving, or not saving, is heightened: Vladek Spiegelman destroyed his wife Anja Spiegelmans notebooks after her suicide in 1968. (In maddening contradistinction to this act of obliteration, he stubbornly saves any manner of big bus uk small and worthless items like matches, and wire found on the street.) The notebooks, which contained Anjas account of her experience in the war, and uk, which she had described to slavery jamaica her son since his childhood, are burned by the time he comes searching for them as a young man. Vladek reveals only over time that he destroyed Anjas notebooks, during a period when he was so depressed I didnt know if Im coming or going ( Complete Maus 161). 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? The very last word in The Market of Azerbaijan Republic: A Transition Economy, Maus I: My Father Bleeds History is murderer: Art Spiegelman accuses his father of murdering his already-dead mother by incinerating her narrative, her archive. 99 Isopropyl Uk? 8.

The absence of archives, the presence of archives: the slavery jamaica, disappearance and appearance of any kind of evidence, record, trace of his parents pre-war and wartime lives constitutes a major narrative thread of Maus , as we also see, for example, in an episode toward the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, end of the book featuring a momentous box of photographs unearthed by Vladekof Anjas family, primarily. In this key scene, Vladek sits lonely among a cascade of drawn photographs, and his single body stretches across comics frames to stand in for absent generations of Spiegelman bodies. 9. What kinds of slavery jamaica archives remain from which parents? How can the son identify and 99 isopropyl, weigh the traces that remain to stitch together the big bus uk, fullest understanding possible from the collection of voices and documents and photographs to which he has access? Maus makes explicit that the archive is a process , not a storehouse of evidence. This process, in fact, is exactly what the book is about. In the shadow of uk his mothers painful wordlessness , her ghostly burnt words, but also her withheld wordsshe didnt leave a note when she chose to end her life Maus is about Spiegelmans fathers archive, and testimony, and Spiegelmans own creation of an archive. We can note Maus s investment in the archive as process rather than as repository of frued dream evidence in the episode in 99 isopropyl uk, which Art, through a conversation with his father, becomes aware of the big bus uk, existence of a photograph of Vladek, after he was liberated, posing in 99 isopropyl uk, a clean concentration camp uniform for a souvenir photo to send to his wife. This photograph is the only one of Vladek in Maus . Tilted out of the rows of drawn boxes, the defining feature of its presence is the and The Strain, ambiguity and 99 isopropyl alcohol, awkwardness it inspires; the questions it sets in motion.

What Spiegelman preserves in publishing this 1945 photograph within the slavery jamaica, space of his comics page is attention to the process behind the creation of both paternal and filial archives. The idea of selectionwhat is re-archived, what is discarded?is also part of the language of the comics page itself, and so Maus is about archives on 99 isopropyl alcohol, at least two levels. 10 First, there is the question of what is actually transmissible from one generation to the next. Second, there is the and The Theory, question of what Spiegelman chooses to incorporate or re-represent in his comics narrative about his fathers Holocaust experience. Comics makes the process of selecting, ordering, and alcohol, preserving intelligible in a way few forms can: its very narrative syntax is an interplay of presence and absence, in and The, which moments of time are selected and boxed (separated conventionally by 99 isopropyl alcohol, bands of white space called the gutter). The actual juxtaposition of frames on the page calls overt attention to the basic grammar of comics as selectionto the rhythm of the american, displayed and the evacuated, and how they constitute each other. While all media select and 99 isopropyl, frame, comics make this process material on the pagenot as merely evocative, but rather as literal. The fact that Maus , a book about family archives, is in the idiom of comics further calls our attention to the construction of its own counter-archive. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the slavery jamaica, creation of memory, Spiegelman avers. Its about a cartoonist trying to 99 isopropyl alcohol envision what his father went through. Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and with it does so in, what one can reveal, and 99 isopropyl uk, what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing ( MetaMaus 73, italics mine). One of the key features of slavery jamaica Maus is its focus on making its own making legible.

While it has become commonplace today to praise a works self-reflexivity, that feature is not necessarily a value in and of itself. However, this aspect of the bookwhich is located in how, specifically, it builds itself as a word-and-image archiveallows Maus to 99 isopropyl alcohol uk function narratively and ethically as a text of witness and testimony. And if Maus is already very meta in its rebuilding (you rebuild me all this from and The Strain Theory Essay your questions, Vladek says ruefully to his cartoonist son), how might a book called MetaMaus function in relation to 99 isopropyl the archive? 11. Starting the project first meant deciding its basic shape.

Spiegelman knew that MetaMaus would draw on archives relating to his parentsofficial records and documentation, family photographs (which are used very sparingly, even teasingly, in Maus ). Big Bus Uk? He also knew that the book would draw on archives relating to his workthe cartoonists comics archive, including drafts, studies, outtakes, notes. (In 1994 the Voyager Company issued a then state-of-the-art CD-ROM, called The Complete Maus , that made use of 99 isopropyl uk photographs and notes and sketches, as well as audio recording, to good effect; an updated version of this CD was from the beginning slated to be a bonus feature of MetaMaus , included with the purchase, but would function separatelyour focus was on creating a stand-alone book with its own complete integrity.) At our first meetings, we brainstormed about the possible structure of MetaMaus , and our desire to shape and select the material while yet maintaining the non-linear temporality of Maus , its weaving and layering of the The Market of Azerbaijan Republic:, past and present, its often deliberately circuitous and recursive movement. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? Eventually, by big bus uk, talking through Maus in a semi-formal way (I taped some of 99 isopropyl alcohol our early conversations, even those that were only ever for the two of and The Theory Essay us), we hit on an interview structure to anchor the book. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? Art would never know my questions in advance; our conversations were always spontaneous, never rehearsed. We were able to converse with each other for hours at Deviance Theory Essay, a time (a regular meeting time was three or four hours), and through simply sitting and talking we came to the tropes that Art most often deals with in his own public talking about Maus Why comics? Why mice? Why the Holocaust? With this tripartite structure in place as a skeleton shape, we formalized our conversations as interviews. Although we never spoke about this explicitly, at some point it dawned on me, years into 99 isopropyl alcohol the project, that our interview structure mirrored Art and Vladeks. For over a solid year I simply looked at and identified and sat with the actual, physical stuff of big bus uk Maus . Alcohol? Art gave me full accessmy own set of keysto his studio.

Whenever he wasnt there, I was free to come in to investigate and pore over and re-organize. Big Bus Uk? This often meant stretches of time on the weekends. (When I couldnt poke around his main cartooning studio, I would spend time in the RAW publishing office a few blocks away, run by Art and his wife Francoise Mouly, which was a similar packed space and housed an alcohol uk ancillary but relevant archive relating to big bus uk their avant-garde comics magazine.) Nothing in Arts studio was off limits to me; I was encouraged to look at anything and everything in that space. Aside from the black archival binders that contained the original drawings and studies for Maus organized by chaptereach final drawn page lay in an archival sheet protectors, along with its attendant drafts and sketchesand a bottom shelf full of Maus -era notebooks from the 1970s to 1990s, what the Maus archive was and could be was yet to be determined, and I located, sifted, aggregated, and re-assembled. My work in the studio in the first two years was two-fold: first, it was navigating the packed space of the studio to 99 isopropyl alcohol uk find the dispersed chunks and bits and pieces of the Maus archive, which lurked on shelves and in drawers, and sometimes in very inconspicuous places. One treasure trove I located was an old, unmarked, inauspicious-looking Garbage Pail Kids folder full of Maus notes and reflections on yellowing index cards; another was an aging manila envelope marked, simply, Maus Grains, which contained grains of ideasstimulating and hearst spanish war, motivating like quotes attributed to Ronald Reagan (we shouldnt talk about the 99 isopropyl alcohol, Holocaust) on 30-year old napkins. 12 I needed to simply locate where the pockets of relevant paper archives might lie, and sort through them.

Since I was so familiar with the story and details of big bus uk Maus , it felt like a backwards board game or detective quest, to find the shards of 99 isopropyl uk reference that accumulated into the whole final product (and sometimes ambiguously didnt). I remember one summer evening sprawling on the floor and finding, under a pile of dusty manila file folders and binders, the photograph of Arts dead brother Richieu that opens Maus II and which Vladek and Anja Spiegelman always kept with them. It felt shocking to have the surprise of seeing this photograph de-contextualized from the narrative I knew so well, and, for all its importance in the book, grouped with the un-important on the shelf. Lifting it out of the pilethe object that stood in for a lost childwas breathtaking. 13 (The same night, in the same dusty pile, I found Vladeks immigration records, and unanswered solicitations requesting donations in order to publically commemorate Anja in Jewish services.) Art and Deviance and The Strain Essay, I anointed a new space, which we called the MetaMaus shelf, where we gathered significant items together. Physically aggregating artifacts and documentsre-centralizing what had been dispersed after the 13 years of making Maus was an intellectual and manual task of 99 isopropyl uk (re)archiving. There was also, broadly speaking, the question of selection. After all, one of the most striking things Art has said to me was an The Market A Transition aside on the telephone in the fall of 2010, when we were discussing the full components of MetaMaus , and were debating whether or not to have a timeline of his life and career (I typically lobbied for these more academic features, including the bibliography).

Explaining his trepidation, Art observed, My chronology would start with: When was Kristallnacht? The imbrication of the past and present is the central suggestion of Maus, as a complete narrative and on each individual page; as Marianne Hirsch recently described one of its pages, Its a series of temporalities that wont stand still. 14. Arts comment about the incontrovertible imprint and shaping of history on the existence and consciousness of his person, the deep mingling of the personal and the historical, is in line with Maus , but to hear him say it out loud so directly about himself felt like a fresh reminder. Maus is meticulously architected but is 99 isopropyl about unruly temporalities. How were we going to consider issues like timelines in a book reflecting the swirling temporalities of Maus ? Art and Vladek had struggled over big bus uk, the issue of timelines in Maus II . Creating an archival book about alcohol uk, a book about archives produced these mirrored moments; Art now got to be the person resisting the timeline and claiming unruly temporalities (in Maus II he presses forward and Vladek snaps, In Auschwitz we didnt wear watches) ( Complete Maus , 228). The question of the working scope of our collection of material, then, was always present, even when not explicitly connected to the imprint of the war. Many early notebooks, such as in the 1960s, from years before the 1972 Maus was formed, contain apposite information about comics and creativity, about spanish american war, filial dynamics with Vladek and alcohol uk, Anja, about the frued, connection of culture and style. Deciding what the 99 isopropyl, constellation of paper archives for and The Essay, Maus was (retrospectively) and MetaMaus would be (prospectively) was a constant issue in assembling what I think of as the research orbit of our archive. Was a Fathers Day card and a Mothers Day card Art drew for his parents as a kid relevant? To me, it was, and alcohol, was entered into the register of The Market Economy Essay items that we considered for the MetaMaus archive. What is indisputably the core of the Maus archive, though, is the original pages, and alcohol uk, the notebooks. (The form of the notebook , given Anja Spiegelmans immolated notebook, the loss of slavery jamaica which constitutes a major thread in the book and also propels the reconstituting project of Maus itself, took on 99 isopropyl uk, a special weight to me.) The tightly organized black binders of drawn original pages and slavery jamaica, page-connected sketches had already been cataloged and scanned by assistants and interns by the time I arrived in the studio. A complete digital archive exists of every page of Maus , and its various iterations. (File names look like this: MausI.I.p22a.jpg; MausI.I.p22b.jpg, and so onsome pages run through the whole alphabet and then the twenty-seventh file is marked by a za, and so forth back into 99 isopropyl alcohol the alphabet.)

I didnt look at the digital files, though, until after I had taken every page and its versions and sketches out spanish, of the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, binders and sheet protector and when intervenes in markets with so in order, studied them closely. This took me about a year. I didnt want to experience the pages and panels on the computer; I wanted to take stock of the materiality of the artifact, to touch and lift the paper and to scrutinize the gummed labels and correction fluid and the physical texture, the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, bumpiness, of the line. The range of papers I attended to by studying the actual drawings was striking; there were sketches on pink While You Were Out correspondence sheets, on receipts, on typing paper, on tracing paper, on graph paper, on lined paper. Strain Theory? One got a sense of the urgency through the pattern of paper; the inspired drawing that happens on whatever surface is most proximate. I was also able to juxtapose spatially in front of me Arts color sketches, assembling a sequence for his meticulous process of sketching in 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, successively darker colors (starting in Republic:, yellow, say, and ending in 99 isopropyl, purple) to discern visual volume and weight in a panel, even though the final line in Maus is always in black. It is only through approaching the actual objects that a sense of the profundity of the layered labor of comics came throughthe obsessional sketching, correcting, layering, crossing-out, and rebuilding. Much in the way that comics forces a kind of big bus uk physical intimacy, as Michael Silverblatt has pointed out, I needed to interact with the archive haptically as though I were assembling it to be comics: spreading it out in front of me, creating sequences with the sketches, holding a drawing up to squint at the spaces, placing studies next to a finished page to discern the narrative movement from draft to final product. (Art initially saved all of 99 isopropyl alcohol his sketches because he thought he would include one with each book when he self-published Maus with RAW.) Maus is a double-voiced text that presents a view of testimony specifically and of narrative generally as a polyvalent weave, where testimony and dream, memory are collaborative procedures generated by both speaker and listener. The dialogic form of comics is constituted by the active tension between word and imagewhich makes it a hospitable form for narration that turns on the tension of competing voices (in the case of Maus , Vladeks and Arts).

Even further, what Maus so brilliantly stages, as I have argued, is that the comics medium is not only dialogic able to be both a biography and an autobiography in one layered workbut also what we might think of as cross-discursive. 15 We see an example of this when Spiegelman draws against his fathers verbal narration in an episode in uk, which the two of them discuss the existence of orchestras at Auschwitz. Verbally, although the Art character notes, Its very well-documented, Spiegelman lets Vladek have the final word (No, I remember only marchingnot any orchestras. How could it be there an orchestra?)but he draws a barely visible orchestra, largely covered up by marching prisoners, in his comics frame ( Complete Maus 214). Maus often works with the friction of verbal and visual discourse; the cartoonist has both at in markets externalities,, his disposal, and so he can preserve his fathers language while drawing against it. Maus is alcohol uk about the tension between the visual, the written, and the oral in its representation of trauma, and in how it expresses the memory of the eyewitness and the secondary witness. There had not been a visual, narrative text of the Holocaust published widely before Maus what I think of as a visual materialization , for instance, of Auschwitz: something that is not a still photograph that captures a single moment, or a moving series of dream interpretation film frames that whisks a viewer along, but is rather a visual materialization that is alcohol a sequence that creates a world that can be studied and engaged at ones own pace. 16 Discussing the question of representation and verisimilitude, Spiegelman chafes at filmmakers quests to re-build the Republic: Economy, camps, as opposed to 99 isopropyl alcohol uk Maus s approach to the government intervenes in markets it does representing the camps by creating it as a mental zone ( MetaMaus 166). Creating the camps as a mental zone ; this is one of the chief abilities of Maus as a narrative that uses the abstractions of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk drawing.

Spiegelman, I learned while interviewing him, had first encountered the slavery jamaica, Holocaust visually. Spiegelman grew up with parents, both Polish survivors of Auschwitz, who, in keeping with what was for some a tacit mandate of post-war American Jewish immigrant culture, didnt address with him in any explicit way what their experiences in Poland had been. As a child, he knew there was something called the war, but his encounters with its traces were a series of jarringly disconnected moments, mostly verbal, like in the emblematic episode from his memoir Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! when in a car ride back from a party his parents speak about a former sonderkommando present at the event for 99 isopropyl alcohol, whom its rumors he put his father and his sons to slavery jamaica the ovens, so nobody sits with him, and then suggest to uk their son, Take a nap again, Cookie! ( MetaMaus 15). However, although his oblique knowledge that his parents had been through something terrible was mostly verbaland aural generally, as he describes hearing them scream in their sleepduring the widely televised Adolf Eichmann trial in frued interpretation, 1961, when he was 13, Spiegelman went searching through his parents private bookshelf, and had his Susan Sontag moment of encountering images of atrocity for the first time. That the experience of recognition was visual isnt particularly unusual: stories of 99 isopropyl alcohol peoples first viewing of Nazi atrocity photos circulate widely.

17 The most significant object that Spiegelman found, however, wasnt primarily photographic. His first real encounter with what to him was the war was visualand drawn . In the big bus uk, process of assembling MetaMaus I learned how formative drawn visual archives are in Spiegelmans intellectual and artistic imaginary. 18 It comes out in our interview that Spiegelman discovered, on his mothers bookshelf, mostly Polish and Yiddish small-press pamphlets published right after the war, some of them picturing everyday life in the camps. For Spiegelman, these were so outside of mass-cultural production, they had a kind of alcohol fanzine-like magic to Strain Theory Essay me and really struck me hard. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? I couldnt understand those words in slavery jamaica, those pamphlets but pored over the two that had pictures.

Anything at all with cartoon-like drawings had an immense pull on me, especially those from before my own childhood ( MetaMaus 49). 99 Isopropyl Uk? The archive I discovered researching MetaMaus opens up traditions of visual witness related to WWII that helped to inspire and innovate, even indirectly, the comics cultures and scenes that sprouted in the late 1960s and early 70s. A plausible arc for the comics field might actually begin with Paladij Osynkas 1946 Auschwitz (owned by Anja Spiegelman), move on to Spiegelmans 1972 Maus, and interpretation, continue on to Maus and the legions of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk work it has inspired. Most of what happened was not photographed, Spiegelman reminds readers about Auschwitz in MetaMaus (50). Taking this seriously, can we posit the urgency to testify to life and death in WWII as the genesis of what we now recognize as contemporary comics? Something introduced, say, in the generational transmission of the pamphlets and sparked by hearst war, the taboo-shattering (itself Vietnam war-induced) ethic of the underground comics? Although Spiegelman couldnt read the text because he didnt know the languages, the 99 isopropyl, images and the amateur graphic design, and humble printingconstituted his first understanding of life during the war; his parents circumstance. Strain? His first full experience of recognition with the Holocaust was visual and drawn hand-made images of witness. Some of these, as he points out, were what we would think of as quite cartoonyone was a booklet, basically, of gag cartoons by a Ukrainian inmate about Auschwitz, with jokes like Ha ha! You didnt get any soup! (49).

19 One pamphlet that had small, poorly printed watercolor drawings of Ravensbruck struck Spiegelman deeply. ( MetaMaus features several images from two of these pamphlets, Ravensbruck and 99 isopropyl alcohol, Auschwitz , both from 1946, and which both happen to be in Ukrainian, and the accompanying DVD has the entire contents of several of the pamphlets under the heading Anjas Bookshelf.) 20 Spiegelmans experience with these unpretentious, cartoon-like drawings of what he calls the oxymoron of life in slavery jamaica, a death camp was formative for Maus , which first appeared in similarly designed and printed serial booklets in the 1980s. That his experience was visual and necessarily not verbal at the level of comprehension also allowed him to encounter the discourse of the visual in a heightened way, even as it shared space on the page with captions. 99 Isopropyl? Spiegelman says, about survivor drawings and surviving art from the Deviance Essay, war: Those drawings were a return to alcohol uk drawing not for Republic: A Transition Economy, its possibilities of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk imposing the self , of finding a new role for art and drawing after the camera, but rather a return to the earlier function that drawing served before the cameraa kind of commemorating, witnessing, and recording of informationwhat Goya referred to when he says, This I saw. (italics mine) He continues, The artists are giving urgent information in the pictures, information that could be transmitted no other way (49-50). Indeed, Goyas use of handmade images as a form of The Market Economy Essay reporting has been important to alcohol contemporary cartoonists as a model of visual witnessing. Nonfiction comics emerged forcefully in hearst american war, the postwar period, and the genre of nonfiction comics developed in its contemporary specificity, I argue, out of WWII, where we can locate powerful aesthetic and political antecedents in the realm of urgent handmade works of visual witness. Spiegelmans Maus archivewhich is now part of the alcohol uk, public MetaMaus archivemakes this legible. Slavery Jamaica? I am fascinated by how, broadly speaking, the discourse of the visualand the notion of alcohol visual archives emerges out of The Market of Azerbaijan A Transition Economy a tension with other media discourses.

This is something we see in the formative post-war pamphlets, which combine word and image, highlighting, for Spiegelman, the status of the image, since the 99 isopropyl uk, words were not fully accessible to hearst spanish american war him. We also see this throughout Maus , a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other. As a newly constituted (shadow) collection of 99 isopropyl sources and archives, MetaMaus preserves, and draws attention to, the tension between the oral, written, and visualand within the realm of the visual, the difference between the drawn and the photographicthat characterizes Maus . It preserves the slavery jamaica, interstices that Maus sets in motion, even as it operates in the realm of the explanatory. Used by Permission of the Wylie Agency LLC. The visual surface of MetaMaus reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives (all in the realm of the ideographic , of the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, printed page) that motivates Maus . MetaMaus s defining feature is american war that it shows the materiality of Spiegelmans archive; it is about the embodiment of archivesarchives as bodies, bodies as archives. The archived body is key in alcohol, MetaMaus . In the slavery jamaica, image of the 1979 lithograph Mom and alcohol, Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), the very first and one of only very few full-page images in the 300-page book, the revenge seems to be the mere existence of the sons postwar body next to his mothers that is being presentedarchivedby the illustration (41). 21 As Spiegelman says in our interview, Taking on my parents Holocaust story was a way of getting to the primal moment of my birth, because there was no way they were supposed to be alive and coupling after WWII.

It is a specific journey that has nothing to do with history and everything to do with history: one or both of Deviance and The Essay these people is supposed to be dead, which means Im not supposed to be here ( MetaMaus, 199). This archiving of bodies that happens through their visual materialization on 99 isopropyl, the page and then public dissemination takes on big bus uk, extra resonance given the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, Nazis famous recordkeeping, archiving and marking, of those they arrested and eliminated. 22. A small but significant detail that indicates MetaMaus s investment in dream, staging the materiality of 99 isopropyl uk archivesor what I think of frued interpretation as the embodiment of archivesis evident without even turning a page. The fairly spare back cover is black: it features two full-color images, along with bold text in white, grey, and 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, red. The top image, flush right, an illustration from the early 90s, depicts Spiegelman as a mouse from Maus reading Maus in a library alongside a realistically-rendered mouse reading George Herrimans comic strip Krazy Kat , which stars Ignatz Mouse. The Market Of Azerbaijan Republic:? The text that begins directly below the image in fact overlays it; the uk, bold red vertical bar of the sans serif uppercase letter I (In the pages of MetaMaus ) covers the a that begins Spiegelmans lowercase, bottom left corner signature. When The Government Externalities, It Does So In Order? The I, glossy, stands out against the matte finish of the hardback cover. A smaller image, a study for the back cover of Maus II , hovers in 99 isopropyl, the bottom left of the back cover, leaning outwards at a slight angle. The original barcode, which is continuous in the image with Vladeks striped camp uniform, here touches MetaMaus s barcode, making all three contiguous.

The most striking visual detail, however, is that this back cover study from Maus II appearing on the back cover of MetaMaus is visually affixed : two small, glossy, transparent pieces of tapenot flat-edged, but textured, as if torn from of Azerbaijan Republic: A Transition Economy a rollpaste up the image on either side. (The I now becomes legible, perhaps, as red tape, holding up the previous image; a letter becomes a visual design element, a kind of alcohol uk picture writing that constitutes the stuff of comics.) The back cover, then, points to the image as object : not only transparent representation what it presents, depictsbut a medium-specific artifact with a material weight and logic that is handled, moved, touched, placed. This approach, highlighting the artifact as an object in space, is in keeping with both my research in slavery jamaica, the Maus archive, in which I studied the physical paper object over available bitmaps or pixmapsand with comics as a practice in general, which is a way, as Spiegelman puts it, of turning narrative into geography ( MetaMaus , 185). MetaMaus showcases the materiality of 99 isopropyl uk its archive throughout. A draft of a tier of panels, in which Vladek confronts Art about finding an frued interpretation early autobiographical comic strip, Prisoner on the Hell Planet, sits at the top of a MetaMaus page, anchored by black electrical tape on either side (many of Spiegelmans drafts and sketches were taped into 99 isopropyl notebooks or folded in to other studies and notes) (35); full draft pages show excision marks and yellowing from glue stains, as in the page about a ghetto cake baked with detergent (74); some of these draft pages, whose coloration and textures display their layers of frued dream composition, are shown full-size to highlight their physical features, as in alcohol uk, the final art for the significant Time Flies page, which makes us take stock of the spanish american war, material weight of the words placed into the hanging balloons (163). A reproduction of a lithograph introducing the Why Mice? chapter has an alcohol evident blind stamp in the corner (110); a page of a notebook containing a sketch for one of the very earliest iterations of and The Strain Theory Maus is a scan not just of the alcohol, panels but of the intervenes in markets with it does so in to, entire piece of paper, a crinkled, yellowed sheet with three holes, one ripped, on its left-hand side (121). Alcohol Uk? A handwritten pencil note of my own, dating a research image as April 6, 1940, remains in its top-right corner (even I was surprised it wasnt Photoshopped out) (137).

USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. The image that is the exemplar of Spiegelmans focus on big bus uk, the materiality of the apparatus of the comics pagean image I fell in love with in uk, 2006, as soon as I saw it in a 1979 notebookcomes to readers under the rubric of Maus studies in style, as Spiegelmans caption puts it (141). Hearst American? Mickey Mouse, making a quizzical expression, faces outward, looking at the viewer. The pen drawing appears on white lined paper; every other horizontal bar created by two lines is blank. At first glance, it looks as though the mouse is divided up, like he got erased or sliced, and 99 isopropyl alcohol, Spiegelman is drawing his disconnected body parts as an exercise in style. Slavery Jamaica? But if one takes the visual logic of the papers format into considerationtaking the drawn image on as inextricably located in and not just on the material space of the alcohol, pagewe see that the mouse is behind the bars of the actual page and interacting with it . His little hands reach out, holding onto the blue line top edge of a bar he stands behind. Spiegelman puns on the materiality of the page, calling our attention to its determining properties. The Market Of Azerbaijan Essay? The character is behind bars of paper, and he reaches out of these bars; hes two-dimensional and, it suggests, three-dimensional at once, existing both inside and outside of the frame we put him in. This image asks us to take stock of the materiality of its composition, just as the alcohol, weightier Time Flies drafts doversions of the famous final page, which Spiegelman has called his avant-garde Times Flies pages because they show the represented object; in this case, fliesboth inside and outside of the material frames of the page (see pages 160-161).

The books interest in showcasing archives as full artifacts in space, revealing their three-dimensionality, is frued dream interpretation particularly evident with photographs. Not all photographs in MetaMaus are treated this way. Alcohol Uk? In some cases, they provide a visual referent for an illustration, as in the small photographic image presented overleaf from the Deviance and The Theory Essay, full-page Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), which functions, in spite of the pressure Spiegelman places on this notion, as a kind of 99 isopropyl uk objective correlative for the lithograph (220). (The book has 66 stand-alone photographs, some public, such as a famous clandestine photo smuggled out from Auschwitz, or a U.S. military aerial shot of Auschwitz, but most private family photos, in slavery jamaica, addition to a collage page of uk maternal Zylberberg family photos [19 in all], and a collage page of paternal Spiegelman family photos [14 in all].) 23. USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. However, the of Azerbaijan Essay, photographs that do highlight their own materiality are striking, as in the photograph of Vladek Spiegelman, one of only three photographs to appear in uk, Maus , on the pages of MetaMaus . The question of how the three photos in Maus re-appear in MetaMaus exemplifies the books creation of its new archive. In an unnamed but dedicated eight-page section on photography in the chapter Why Comics?, in in markets externalities,, which all three Maus photographs reappear, we see the breathtaking souvenir photo of Vladekonly the photograph is different. Maus embeds a clean copy of the 99 isopropyl alcohol, 1945 photograph on page 294, breaking out of the frame, revealing black space behind it.

In MetaMaus , we see a draft sketch for the same tier of panels, but this time with the original battered, creased photograph of spanish american Vladek tilting out of the frame. The caption underscores this attention to the actual material object: The original copy of uk Vladeks photo (220). Slavery Jamaica? The photo here highlights its own romantic, and filial, generational, transatlantic transmission : it looks like a photograph from 1945 that was carried with an itinerant person and mailed from Germany to 99 isopropyl a wife in Poland and brought to Sweden and the U.S. and Strain Essay, passed along to 99 isopropyl uk a son decades later might lookit looks used, worn, traveled, gripped by many hands (the creases generate from the middle sides of the photograph, as if bent by hearst american, actual touching). Further, the last conventionally narrative page of the book, before the Chronology and Index, ends with a photograph of Anja Spiegelmanand gives us, literally, a three-dimensional presentation: it shows us the front of the photograph, and then the 99 isopropyl alcohol, back, delivering the The Market Economy, complete object to readers. Spiegelmans caption, unusually, appears at the top, so that the pages ensuing narrative is uk given over to of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy Essay the logic of the full artifact, and the book ends with Vladek Spiegelmans handwriting in uk, pen on the pictures back: Last cruise together with my beloved wife March, 1968. Died May 21 st 1968. (There is no page number for this page; just Vladeks conclusive period.) If, as discussed previously, MetaMaus also showcases and enacts Maus s cross-discursive battles between Art and Vladek, it nevertheless gives Vladek the Strain, last word on an incontrovertible fact. The photograph appears not only as a powerful image, but as a powerful archival object with emotional and actual weight (the front image of the picture, angled right, even creates a small soft shadow on the handwritten back inscription). Along with the amplification of embodiment and materiality of the archive seen in Maus, MetaMaus s visual surface is also characterized by the cross-discursive dynamics Maus enacts. Although Art and I did not deliberately plan this aspect of the bookas we did not consciously plan the unrehearsed but recorded interlocutionary structure of MetaMaus as a mirroring of Maus MetaMaus presents a tension on the page between the alcohol, prose interview and big bus uk, the graphics. 24 The pages of MetaMaus reflect, then, the tension between word and image that motivates the alcohol, internal movement of all comics, and that our collaborative connection could be said to reflect. In some sense, our work was about establishing the book, too, not only as containing comics within it, but further and more importantly establishing itself as more comics-like than it might have otherwise been.

The seemingly endless process of The Market A Transition Essay sifting and condensing and alcohol, distilling and locating our words in frued, meaningful relation to alcohol highly curated images in space was, in essence, the practice of slavery jamaica comics. And MetaMaus also enacts all of the interruptions, interstices, ambivalence, counterpoints, and (de-regulated) rhythms between word and image and presence and absence that the best comics do. As a graduate student at the University of 99 isopropyl alcohol uk Chicago pointed out to me, for instance, on the first narrative page of the bookthe opening of our interviewit looks, visually, like our interview is being pushed down by the two-page comic strip Mein Kampf, an big bus uk earlier (1995) and much briefer meditation on memory, archives, and Maus (12-13). 25 Although the Hillary font, as we called it, a grey-green bold sans serif, opens the first chapter with a question in enormous letters on the title page, when one turns the page, one does not first encounter the continuation of the interview implied by the question, but rather, immediately, the comic strip, which spans over four-fifths of each of the opening pages. From the very outset, the book establishes a tension between its prose and its graphics that is itself characteristic of comics. The images can be interruptive or force the eye out of continuous reading.

Sometimes the interview jumps across pages, which are built on a vertical two column grid, and when one turns the page, one is met immediately with an image opening the subsequent column, over which ones eye must skip in order to continue the interview, or on which one will pause before re-orienting with the interview. 26 There is no right way to absorb the pages; no correct order, as in comics, between words and images. Double-spread pages, as in our discussion of creative block in the chapter Why Mice?, sometimes create an diagonal quadrant effect, in which a page with the 99 isopropyl, basic vertical sequence text-image is followed overleaf by a page with the basic vertical sequence image-text, demonstrating that there is not only one acceptable way to take in the combination of visual and verbal elements ( MetaMaus 146-147). 27 I often felt that I had to spanish optically climb over the visual/archival elements to keep the thread of the text going (incidentally, in the previously unpublished comic strip that accompanies the discussion of creative block, Spiegelman draws an interviewer climbing over 99 isopropyl alcohol, elements of the hearst american war, pastbodiesin order to ask him questions about Maus ). MetaMaus values the interruptions of the visual archive, setting down and placing pressure on certain rhythms established between the visual archival elements and words on the page. The ethic of interruptiveness the pages set in motion is writ large in instances where the conversation is temporarily broken off by entire separate sequences, such as the appearance of the Family Tree section, which arrives not as an appendix, but rather in 99 isopropyl alcohol, the middle of one of Spiegelmans responses; it bisects page 223 vertically and Deviance and The Strain Essay, continues for alcohol, seven pages, after which we are returned to hearst spanish Arts analysis of a specific page of Maus . The breaks are thematic, but theyre not clean. On one hand, this rhythm is about a dynamic in alcohol uk, which we have a conversation about artifacts, and then let the Deviance and The Strain Theory, artifacts speak for themselves, as in the Family Tree sections aggregation of family photographs. The non-linearity of MetaMaus , its edges and 99 isopropyl alcohol, interruptions, reveals the The Market, book as testimonynot only a book about testimony (Spiegelmans fathers), but rather distinctthe testimony, not testament, of a son, artist, and secondary witness, solicited through conversation. MetaMaus balances the weight of its archive with the visual emptiness of space. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? It shows the counterpoint of presence (the materiality of paper, ink, photographs) and absencethe unfilled speech balloons that suggest, at least graphically, the big bus uk, absences that remain despite all the alcohol uk, work of slavery jamaica rebuilding. The appearance of empty balloonssomething we dont get much of in Maus , despite Spiegelmans nod to alcohol Becketts statement on silencein MetaMaus makes legible and material the interpretation, question: How do you fill in the gaps? 28 (In their graphic evocation of the empty boxes of the post-war Spiegelman family tree, the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, empty balloons suggest the of Azerbaijan A Transition, presence behind the absence.) They are not about emphasizing the fact of the unrepresentable or untellablein a recent public event, Spiegelman quipped that unlike when he started Maus , today the unspeakable gets spoken within 10 minutesbut rather about the 99 isopropyl alcohol, effort made to communicate.

29 In my examination of Spiegelmans drafts and studies, I was always surprised at how resonant the visual of the empty balloon felt, especially in dialogues, with physical gestures and the indication of slavery jamaica articulation in place and the words themselves evaporated: it looked like the representation of people trying to talk to each other, and it suggested, in a way, at least graphically, that the site of interlocution was enough, no matter what the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, precise shapes of sound were. The last page of our interview features one drawing, and one photograph. In the drawing, a color panel study from Maus with blues and reds, the text box is empty, and the speech balloon is empty (234). Vladek and Anja, reunited, embrace tightly (the words we are missing in both dialogue and narration are Vladeks; his voice will later connect to and fill this blank space, when his handwritten inscription on the back of a photograph of Anja ends the book.) This panel sits in the center of the page; our interview flows around it, and ends right before a photograph of Vladek and Anjas cemetery tombstonethe Spiegelman tombstone drawn in Maus that concludes that book. Our last page enacts a reversal. While the final page of Maus (its enough stories for slavery jamaica, now, Vladek says) offers an ink headstone, under which Spiegelmans signature sits, as if buried (or engendering his parents story backwards), MetaMaus s conclusion to talking offers a photographic headstone, above which sits Spiegelmans typographic signature, in a way retracting the 99 isopropyl, primacy of big bus uk self that Maus s last marks could be seen to indicate. Maus s signature reads, by hand, art spiegelman 1978-1991, the span of time he worked on 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, Maus ; MetaMaus s reads Art Spiegelman, with Hillary Chute, NYC, 2006-2010, the span of time during which we put together MetaMaus . USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. On one level, in big bus uk, its archival display mode, the page seems to cede to the indexicality of the uk, photograph, which is unattributedno caption or date fixes this object, so it has a certain timeless resonance.

Yet on another level, we have Spiegelmans post-plot ending, a black page overleaf with three small color panel studies, also with blank white text boxes, that float, unanchored, at the bottom of the page. They show a man, walking alone under a moon, train tracks ahead of him (the images depict Vladek, finally, heading home to Poland from Germany). We end, on one hand, with the Strain Theory Essay, graphic emptiness of words, but also the fullness of richly colored visual images. And while both pages offer unfilled spaces of the verbal within their panels, our last interview page offers a rich flow of prose, itself counterbalanced with the strictly visual post-plot ending with no words. Presenting its historical and newly constituted archives, MetaMaus enacts the frisson between words and images throughout. The boxes of comics are archival boxes boxes of 99 isopropyl uk space to put things in, to frame things with, to hearst war enclose and preserve with (even if the elements inside will not stay still, spilling out into the gutter, or literally breaking the frame). The impulses shaping comics most basic grammar express an 99 isopropyl archival drive, or suggest what we might think of as comics archival unconscious. 30 In a 1977 meditation on comics, Spiegelman points out that comics framesalso called panels, or boxesare like windows of a building (Introduction np).

They may be this, but they are also containers , literal boxes that are the building blocks of a psychic and material edifice, offering the look and view implied by windows, but also the interpretation, power to hold, include, delimit. The work that comics enacts is architectonic , as Spiegelman has often pointed out. Maus , he says, for alcohol uk, instance, could not be accomplished without the architectonic rigor of cartoonist Winsor McCay; his own attempts to define comics as a medium are to get at what the architectonics of comics might be. 31 The OED defines architectonic as of or pertaining to slavery jamaica architecture, suited or serviceable for the construction of buildings; of 99 isopropyl uk or pertaining to construction. Two further definitions there pertain: one, noted to slavery jamaica be used by Aristotle, is having the function of superintendence and control, i.e. having the relation that an architect bears to the artificers employed on the building; directive; controlling. The next is, simply, pertaining to the systematization of knowledge. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol Uk? All of these apply to big bus uk comics, which is a system of knowledge, in addition to a form of expression, that has everything to do with being an artificer in the Greek sense and one who controls the shape of time, space, and 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, material on the page. 32 The architectonics of Deviance and The comics is the process of archiving. It makes a location for ordering information to 99 isopropyl alcohol express history and memory. 33.

Spiegelman later likened comics boxes to packed suitcases, and he has figured comics boxes as boxes of memory smashing up against each other. Strain Essay? 34 He has also likened comics panels, the forms most essential grammar, to coffins. He told me, to cite again an earlier quotation, that Maus is about choices being made, of uk finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the of Azerbaijan Republic: Economy, things that give real tensile strength to the workputting the dead into little boxes ( MetaMaus , 73). The language of putting the dead into little boxes is especially resonant given that Maus literally buries Vladek Spiegelman, ending the book with his headstone. To archive something can mean to materialize something in order to place and bury it, as when I asked Spiegelman about alcohol, a notebook entry, on what seemed to me the key issue of big bus uk his identification with Vladek, and his responseprinted in MetaMaus , was, Well, tell me more.

You know, I put in a notebook so Id never have to think about it again (32). 35 Then someone comes along and digs it up, as I did, and as Art did when he searched down information in his fathers archives for Maus (only there, his father had burned Anjas notebooks, incinerating as opposed to burying to ensure finality). But comics procedure of archiving doesnt have to be only entombing (and the dead dont stay dead). Comics inscribes its information in boxes on the page in order to preserve and uk, commemorate, but also to when the government in markets with it does to disseminate, to circulate, to produce an interaction. Hillary Chute is the author of Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics (Columbia 2010) and Associate Editor of 99 isopropyl uk Art Spiegelmans MetaMaus (Pantheon 2011). She is slavery jamaica working on a book titled Disaster is My Muse: Visual Witnessing, Comics, and Documentary Form . Alcohol? Chute is the Neubauer Family Assistant Professor in English at the University of Chicago and will be a Visiting Scholar at and The Strain Essay, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for 2012-2013. 2 For more on Maus and photography, see Hirsch, Family Frames , and Liss, Trespassing Through Shadows . 3 Vladek Spiegelman, posthumously, became a historical public figure. For a time, although not currently, there was a discrete Wikipedia entry for Vladek; Stanley Crouch named him in his pantheon of heroes, and Lauren Rednisss recent book Radioactive features an entry on Vladek in a section on famous Polish citizens. 4 See Iadonisi for a take on the collaborative narrative fabric of Maus . 5 The main body of the book is an interview I conducted with Spiegelman for a period of two-plus years, which we had transcribed along the 99 isopropyl uk, way and which I then edited from hundreds upon big bus uk, hundreds of pages down to workable drafts that we condensed into the roughly 234 pages that appear in the printed book. 6 See Chute 2005. Indy magazine is no longer operative.

7 It seems there might be an archival turn everywhere. In a highly specific way, however, it is clear to 99 isopropyl uk me that my field of hearst american war study, contemporary nonfiction comics, is deeply steeped in the desires and problems that the work of 99 isopropyl archiving asks us to consider. 8 Spiegelman accuses both parents of being a murderer in Maus . In the comic strip Prisoner on the Hell Planet, a work from The Market Republic: Economy Essay 1972 that is embedded within the book, Spiegelman ends the strip with the Art character addressing his mother right after her suicide: You murdered me, mommy, and you left me here to take the rap! 9 Hoffman points out how the 99 isopropyl alcohol, body has been seen as an archive in at least two senses: as a storehouse for data and as itself a source of war information (6). 10 The notion of uk selection also has parallels, although inverselyselection for preservation versus selection for The Market of Azerbaijan A Transition Essay, destructionto the selektions that were such a defining feature of the Nazi program of elimination and such a large part of Vladeks testimony in Maus . 11 Complete Maus, 258. 12 See Marks, Maus and Bitburg. 13 One striking and uk, moving photograph included within MetaMaus is of Anja and Vladek in of Azerbaijan Republic:, 1946, posing with this framed photograph of Richieu, as though the entire family of three is having their picture taken.

Anjas elbowshe looks distracted and sad, while Vladek holds her and looks adoringly at hertouches the frame, as if establishing a bodily connection ( MetaMaus 236). 14 Second Thoughts on the Memory Industry, NYU/ New York Institute of the Humanities symposium. May 7, 2011. 15 See Chute, The Shadow of a Past Time. 16 One other loosely sequential form visually representing Auschwitz could possibly be the space of the 99 isopropyl uk, museum. See Landsberg. 17 See Hirsch 2004 for an analysis of slavery jamaica visual encounters of recognition. 18 See Drawing the Holocaust in 99 isopropyl uk, The New York Review of Books online for an excerpt of my interview with Spiegelman that deals specifically with survivor (and non-survivor) art. 19 Another striking example of cartoon drawing of the camps is the 1942 booklet Mickey in Gurs, by prisoner Horst Rosenthal (he died the same year in Auschwitz). See MetaMaus 138. 20 Ravensbruck , Ukrainian, artist unknown, 1946.

Auschwitz: Album of A Political Prisoner , Ukrainian, by Republic: Economy, Paladij Osynka, 1946. Spiegelman very specifically classifies these pamphlets as part of his mothers domain in 99 isopropyl uk, presenting them on the DVD as Anjas Bookshelf. Anja Spiegelman was formative for his artistry in many ways, including in her role as the spanish, owner and uk, saver of the small-press pamphlets she transported from Europe, and in when the government intervenes with order to, her role drawing collaboratively with her young son through the uk, Scribble game (see Portrait ). Vladeks second wife (and Maus character) Mala Spiegelman translated several of the slavery jamaica, pamphlets that appeared in Polish for Spiegelman during his research for Maus . 21 There are only fifteen instances, including double-page spreads, like one of rejection letters, in which an image occupies an entire page of MetaMaus . This lithograph is based on a photograph of Anja and Art Spiegelman in 99 isopropyl uk, Stockholm that appears in Deviance Strain Essay, MetaMaus on the facing page, at about two inches high (40). Alcohol Uk? The lithograph shares the composition of the photograph, except for a cat hanging (lynched?) from a tree branch behind Anja and Art. Dream Interpretation? The lithograph image does not seem to imply the adult mother in alcohol, the foreground has directly physically murdered the Nazi cat; rather, the mere existence of her three-year-old son holding her hand in a snowsuit is tantamount to The Market Republic: Economy murderingenacting revenge onthe cat standing in for Nazism. 22 For a recent essay on 99 isopropyl uk, the nature of archives and Nazi official and private recordkeeping, see Farmer; for a take on the effect of Nazi documentation as seen in Berlins new Topography of Terror Center, see Malamud. 23 By stand-alone I mean not embedded in another previously circulating work, as in the two photographs that are part of the reprinted story Mein Kampf that opens an early section of the Strain Theory Essay, book.

The first four photographs to appear in the book are these of Art (1956) and his son Dash (1995), on page 13, and Anjas Polish passport (1946) and 99 isopropyl uk, Vladeks U.S. naturalization application (1951), on page 16, followed by the first non-circulating, non-previously contextualized photograph, Anja and Vladek kissing at Arts bar mitzvah (1961), on page 21. 24 Art and I sometimes disagreed on the weight that should be given to the different elements; I was much more comfortable with swaths of text whereas Art pushed me to see the importance of visual anchors. This dynamic was instructive in that its tensions are actually parallel to the basic word and and The Theory Essay, image tensions of the form of comics. 25 Thank you to Carmen Merport for her insights about this tension. Although sometimes the graphics crush down the prose on the page, sometimes the images seem to surge up from the bottom of the page, what I think of as a crushing upwards . This is evident in a sequence in 99 isopropyl, which Spiegelman and I discuss Nazi propagandaa rich archive, for sure, that has a forceful visual presence in the bookand a poster for an anti-Semitic film featuring the leering face of a swarthy, pointy-eared, kippa-wearing Jew seems to push up on a tiny top-edge illustration by Spiegelman of cockroach Gregor Samsa, squeezing out The Market A Transition Economy Essay, prose and allowing for only a few lines of uk type in between iterations of dehumanization (114). 26 Page 22, in which a draft from Maus opens the page in of Azerbaijan Economy Essay, the top left while a sentence jumps from page 21 to 22 below it, is one example among many. 27 Another example, involving family photographs, is 32-33. 28 The Spiegelman character says to his therapist Paul Pavel: Like Samuel Beckett once said, Every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness ( Complete Maus 205). 29 Spiegelman expands on 99 isopropyl, this in big bus uk, conversation with me in a YouTube clip posted by the 92nd St. Y (October 6, 2011). 30 In Archival Bodies, Hoffman suggests of the notion of an archival unconscious : the archival unconscious is not so much a place, or a preexisting set of meanings, but rather the function of an alcohol uk interactive process, in which something comes into dream interpretation being (27).

The interactive process here would be constituted in the relation between the psychic life of imagined and remembered histories and the process of visualizing, or materializing them. 31 Silverblatt 33; MetaMaus 166. 32 Bechdels Fun Home explicitly takes on the language of the Greek artificer and suggests the cartoonist as artificer. 33 See Chute, In the Shadow of a Past Time (also included on the MetaMaus DVD) for one view of Maus and its ordering of information. 34 See 2008s Portrait of the 99 isopropyl uk, Artist as a Young and MetaMaus 38 for comics panels and suitcases, and Portrait as an example of panels as boxes of The Market of Azerbaijan memory. This notion first found expression in Spiegelmans experimental piece Some Boxes for the Salvation Army (1976). 35 This exchange reminds me of Vladeks comment to uk Art: All such things from the war, I tried to put out from frued dream my mind once for alcohol, all until you rebuild me all this from your questions ( Complete Maus 258). Bechdel, Alison.

2006. Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chute, Hillary. Big Bus Uk? 2005. Literal Forms: Narrative Structures in Maus , Indy Magazine (March). Online. -------. 2006. The Shadow of a Past Time: History and Graphic Representation in.

Maus . Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer): 199-230. Cvetkovich, Ann. 2008. Drawing the 99 isopropyl alcohol uk, Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home . WSQ: Womens Studies Quarterly 36: 1 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 111-128. Farmer, Sarah. 2010. Going Visual: Holocaust Representation and Historical Method, American History Review (February): 115-122. Gardner, Jared. 2006. Archives, Collectors, and The Market of Azerbaijan A Transition, the New Media Work of Comics. Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies . Special issue on Graphic Narrative, ed.

Hillary Chute and 99 isopropyl uk, Marianne DeKoven. 52.4 (Winter): 787-806. Print. Hirsch, Marianne. 2004. Collateral Damage. Editors Column. PMLA 119.5 (Oct.): 1209-15. --------. 1997. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory . Big Bus Uk? Cambridge: Harvard UP. Hoffman, Anne Golomb. 2009. Archival Bodies. American Imago 66.1 (Spring): 5-40.

Iadonisi, Rick. 1994. Bleeding History and Owning His [Fathers] Story: Maus and 99 isopropyl, Collaborative Autobiography. CEA Critic 57.1 (Fall): 41-56. Print. Landsberg, Alison. Strain? 1997. America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of 99 isopropyl uk Memory. New German Critique (Spring/Summer): 63-86. Liss, Andrea. 1998. Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Malamud, Randy. 2011. Meticulously Evil: Nazi Efficiencies Documented in Topography of Terror. Chronicle of Higher Education , April 22, Vol. 57, Issue 33. Accessed March 14, 2012. http://chronicle.com/article/Meticulously-Evil/127100/ Marks, Clifford J. Big Bus Uk? 2002. Maus and Bitburg. The Midwest Quarterly : 298-313.

Redniss, Lauren. 99 Isopropyl Alcohol? 2010. Radioactive: Marie and Pierre Curie: A Story of slavery jamaica Love and Fallout . New York: HarperCollins. Rohy, Valerie. 2010. In The Queer Archive: Fun Home . GLQ 16.3: 341-361. Silverblatt, Michael. 1995. The Cultural Relief of Art Spiegelman. Tampa Review 5: 31-36.

Spiegelman, Art. 2011. The Complete Maus (anniversary edition). New York: Pantheon. ------. 1994. Alcohol Uk? The Complete Maus . CD-ROM. New York: Voyager Company. ------. 1998. From Maus to Now to Maus to hearst spanish american Now . Palermo: La Centrale dellArte.

------. 1977. Introduction. Breakdowns . New York: Belier Press. ------. 2011. Alcohol? The Complete Maus : Maus I: My Father Bleeds History, Maus II: And Here My Troubles Began . New York: Pantheon. ------.

2011. MetaMaus. Assoc. Ed. Hearst American? Hillary Chute. New York: Pantheon. ------. 2008. Alcohol Uk? Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! . In Breakdowns (reissue). New York: Pantheon. ------.

1976. Some Boxes For the Salvation Army. Arcade #5. San Francisco: Print Mint. Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute. 2011. Drawing the Holocaust. NYRblog: New York Review of Books online. October 21. Accessed January 4, 2012. The Market Republic: A Transition Economy? http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/oct/21/drawing-holocaust/

Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute at the 92nd St. Y. Alcohol Uk? October 6, 2011. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vnb2D4FySro. Images are from MetaMaus by Art Spiegelman. Deviance? 2011 by Art Spiegelman, used by permission of Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., and The Wylie Agency LLC. Marianne Hirsch and Diana Taylor. Volume 9 | Issues 1 and 2 | Summer 2012. Olga Rodriguez Ulloa.

Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer. Andy Bichlbaum and alcohol uk, Marcial Godoy-Anativia. Mary Marshall Clark. A SENSORIAL ARCHIVE OF THE COLOMBIAN CONFLICT. Jimena Lara Estrada. Jennifer Flores Sternad. Milagros de la Torre. Tamara Lea Spira. Vivian Martinez Tabares. Aravind Enrique Adyanthaya.

CONCIERTO PARA 3 MACHETES BY MIGUEL RODRIGUEZ SEPULVEDA. ASCO: ELITE OF THE OBSCURE, A RETROSPECTIVE 1972-1987 AT LACMA. CLIFFORD OWENS: ANTHOLOGY AT PS1. PLEGARIA MUDA BY DORIS SALCEDO. AND SO I LEFT FROM GEORGIA WALL'S UNSEEN PERFORMANCES. FELIPE DEGREGORI'S CHUNGUI: HORROR sIN LAGRIMAS.

Copyright 19982017 Hemispheric Institute of Performance and slavery jamaica, Politics.